OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 26, Iss. 7 — Apr. 1, 2001
  • pp: 402–404

Wave-front sensing with time-of-flight phase diversity

Michael Lloyd-Hart, Stuart M. Jefferies, J. Roger P. Angel, and E. Keith Hege  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 402-404 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (177 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a new way to sense atmospheric wave-front phase distortion. Short collimated pulses of laser light at ~350nm are projected from a small auxilliary telescope. Rayleigh scattering from each pulse is recorded over a wide range of height through the main telescope aperture in a continuous sequence of fast video frames by a detector conjugate to mid-height. Phase diversity is thus naturally introduced as the pulses approach and pass through focus. We show that an iterative algorithm can extract the phase structure from the recorded images and do so with a much higher signal-to-noise ratio than is possible with existing techniques. If the requirements for real-time data recording and reduction can be met, the new method will address the need for tomographic wave-front sensing at planned 30-m-class telescopes.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(140.3610) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ultraviolet
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics

Michael Lloyd-Hart, Stuart M. Jefferies, J. Roger P. Angel, and E. Keith Hege, "Wave-front sensing with time-of-flight phase diversity," Opt. Lett. 26, 402-404 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. J. M. Spinherne, J. G. Allen, G. A. Ameer, J. M. Brown, J. C. Christou, T. S. Duncan, R. J. Eager, M. A. Ealey, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Q. Fugate, G. W. Jones, R. M. Kuhns, D. J. Lee, W. H. Lowery, M. D. Oliker, R. E. Ruane, D. W. Swindle, J. K. Voas, W. J. Wild, K. B. Wilson, and J. L. Wynia, Proc. SPIE 3353, 22 (1998).
  2. S. Hippler, A. Glindemann, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, D. P. Looze, and W. K. Hackenberg, Proc. SPIE 3353, 44 (1998).
  3. M. Lloyd-Hart, J. R. P. Angel, T. D. Groesbeck, T. Martinez, B. P. Jacobsen, B. A. McLeod, D. W. McCarthy, E. J. Hooper, E. K. Hege, and D. G. Sandler, Astrophys. J. 493, 950 (1998).
  4. R. A. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 829 (1982).
  5. R. G. Paxman, T. J. Schulz, and J. R. Fienup, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1072 (1992).
  6. M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, R. Angel, and D. Sandler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 390, L41 (1992).
  7. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  8. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quanities (Athlone, London, 1973).
  9. J. Ge, B. P. Jacobsen, J. R. P. Angel, P. C. McGuire, T. Roberts, B. McLeod, and M. Lloyd-Hart, Proc. SPIE 3353, 242 (1998).
  10. L. A. Thompson and R. M. Castle, Opt. Lett. 17, 1485 (1992).
  11. S. M. Jefferies, M. Lloyd-Hart, and E. K. Hege are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensing wave front amplitude and phase with phase diversity.”
  12. G. B. Scharmer, High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, Vol. 183 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), p. 330.
  13. J. Primot, G. Rousset, and J. C. Fontanella, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1598 (1990).
  14. R. J. Noll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207 (1976).
  15. M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and W. Wei, Appl. Opt. 39, 94 (2000).
  16. R. L. Kendrick, D. S. Acton, and A. L. Duncan, Appl. Opt. 33, 6533 (1994).
  17. J. E. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 4004, 282 (2000).
  18. P. Dierickx and R. Gilmozzi, Proc. SPIE 4004, 290 (2000).
  19. B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Q. Fugate, and J. M. Spinherne, Proc. SPIE 1780, 913 (1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited