We describe a phase retrieval approach for intensity point-spread functions of high-numerical-aperture optical systems such as light microscopes. The method calculates a generalized pupil function defined on a spherical shell, using measured images at several defocus levels. The resultant pupil functions reproduce measured point-source images significantly better than does an ideal imaging model. Availability of pupil function information will facilitate new approaches to aberration correction in such systems.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
Bridget M. Hanser, Mats G. L. Gustafsson, David A. Agard, and John W. Sedat, "Phase retrieval for high-numerical-aperture optical systems," Opt. Lett. 28, 801-803 (2003)