We present a high-sensitivity near-infrared optical imaging system for noninvasive cancer detection and localization based on molecularly labeled fluorescent contrast agents. This frequency-domain system utilizes the interferencelike pattern of diffuse photon density waves to achieve high detection sensitivity and localization accuracy for the fluorescent heterogeneity embedded inside the scattering media. A two-dimensional localization map is obtained through reflectance probe geometry and goniometric reconstruction. <i>In vivo</i> measurements with a tumor-bearing mouse model by use of the novel Cypate-mono-2-deoxy-glucose fluorescent contrast agent, which targets the enhanced tumor glycolysis, demonstrate the feasibility of detection of a 2-cm-deep subsurface tumor in the tissuelike medium, with a localization accuracy within 2–3 mm.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(110.5100) Imaging systems : Phased-array imaging systems
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.5270) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon density waves
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
Y. Chen, G. Zheng, Z. H. Zhang, D. Blessington, M. Zhang, H. Li, Q. Liu, L. Zhou, X. Intes, S. Achilefu, and B. Chance, "Metabolism-enhanced tumor localization by fluorescence imaging: in vivo animal studies," Opt. Lett. 28, 2070-2072 (2003)