We present a method for parallel coupling from a single-mode fiber, or fiber ribbon, into a silicon-on-insulator waveguide for integration with silicon optoelectronic circuits. The coupler incorporates the advantages of the vertically tapered waveguides and prism couplers, yet offers the flexibility of planar integration. The coupler can be fabricated by use of either wafer polishing technology or gray-scale photolithography. When optimal coupling is achieved in our experimental setup, the coupler can be packaged by epoxy bonding to form a fiber-waveguide parallel coupler or connector. Two-dimensional electromagnetic calculation predicts a coupling efficiency of 77% (-1.14-dB insertion loss) for a silicon-to-silicon coupler with a uniform tunnel layer. The coupling efficiency is experimentally achieved to be 46% (-3.4-dB insertion loss), excluding the loss in silicon and the reflections from the input surface and the output facet.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(240.7040) Optics at surfaces : Tunneling
Zhaolin Lu and Dennis W. Prather, "Total internal reflection-evanescent coupler for fiber-to-waveguide integration of planar optoelectric devices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1748-1750 (2004)