OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 34, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 2009
  • pp: 2444–2446

Creating a spherical focal spot with spatially modulated radial polarization in 4Pi microscopy

Weibin Chen and Qiwen Zhan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 16, pp. 2444-2446 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (329 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose an approach to obtain a diffraction-limited spherical focal spot in 4Pi microscopy. By combining the dipole antenna radiation pattern and the Richards–Wolf vectorial diffraction method, an input field at a pupil plane of aplanatic objective lenses for generating a spherical spot can be found analytically by solving the inverse problem. The required field at the pupil plane is found to be a radial polarization with spatial amplitude modulation. With spatial phase modulation, two identical spherical spots with diffraction-limited size and variable distance along the optical axis can also be obtained.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(170.4520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical confinement and manipulation
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: June 3, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: July 7, 2009
Published: August 7, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Weibin Chen and Qiwen Zhan, "Creating a spherical focal spot with spatially modulated radial polarization in 4Pi microscopy," Opt. Lett. 34, 2444-2446 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Weiss, Science 283, 1676 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ashikin and J. Z. Dziedzic, Science 235, 1517 (1987). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hell and E. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Lang, T. Staudt, J. Engelhardt, and S. Hell, New J. Phys. 10, 043041 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1968 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Gu, Advanced Optical Imaging Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999).
  9. K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, Opt. Express 7, 77 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited