A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light–matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.
© 2012 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: February 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 19, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 20, 2012
Published: June 12, 2012
Gurpreet Singh, Koustuban Ravi, Qian Wang, and Seng-Tiong Ho, "Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media," Opt. Lett. 37, 2361-2363 (2012)