OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Xi-Cheng Zhang
  • Vol. 39, Iss. 13 — Jul. 1, 2014
  • pp: 3986–3988

Wavefront-coding technique for inexpensive and robust retinal imaging

Justo Arines, Rene O. Hernandez, Stefan Sinzinger, A. Grewe, and Eva Acosta  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 13, pp. 3986-3988 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (416 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose a hybrid optical-digital imaging system that can provide high-resolution retinal images without wavefront sensing or correction of the spatial and dynamic variations of eye aberrations. A methodology based on wavefront coding is implemented in a fundus camera in order to obtain a high-quality image of retinal detail. Wavefront-coded systems rely simply on the use of a cubic-phase plate in the pupil of the optical system. The phase element is intended to blur images in such a way that invariance to optical aberrations is achieved. The blur is then removed by image postprocessing. Thus, the system can provide high-resolution retinal images, avoiding all the optics needed to sense and correct ocular aberration, i.e., wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.4300) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision system - noninvasive assessment
(330.7327) Vision, color, and visual optics : Visual optics, ophthalmic instrumentation
(110.7348) Imaging systems : Wavefront encoding

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

Original Manuscript: March 17, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 20, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 20, 2014
Published: June 27, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Justo Arines, Rene O. Hernandez, Stefan Sinzinger, A. Grewe, and Eva Acosta, "Wavefront-coding technique for inexpensive and robust retinal imaging," Opt. Lett. 39, 3986-3988 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Catlin and C. Dainty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1515 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 585 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Arines, Opt. Commun. 284, 1548 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. E. R. Dowski and W. T. Cathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Bradburn, W. T. Cathey, and E. R. Dowski, Appl. Opt. 36, 9157 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. H. B. Wach, W. T. Cathey, and E. R. Dowski, Appl. Opt. 37, 5359 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. A. B. Samokhin, A. N. Simonov, and M. C. Rombach, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 977 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. Dowski, “Mechanically-adjustable optical phase filters for modifying depth of field, aberration-tolerance, anti-aliasing in optical systems,” U.S. patent7,180,673 B2 (February20, 2007).
  10. S. Stoebenau, R. Kleindienst, M. Hofmann, and S. Sinzinger, Proc. SPIE 8126, 812614 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Acosta, R. Blendowske, and S. Chamadoira, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 632 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, and S. Bara, Opt. Lett. 25, 236 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Wood, Digital Image Processing (Pearson Education, 2008).
  14. http://www.lia.org/publications/ansi/Z136-3 .
  15. J. A. Guerrero-Colon and J. Portilla, “Two-level adaptive denoising using Gaussian scale mixtures in overcomplete oriented pyramids,” in 12th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2005.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited