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Optics Letters

| RAPID, SHORT PUBLICATIONS ON THE LATEST IN OPTICAL DISCOVERIES

  • Vol. 12, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1987
  • pp: 531–533

Direct-current bias stable Ti:LiNbO3 TE-TM mode converters produced by magnesium postdiffusion

N. A. Sanford and W. C. Robinson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 7, pp. 531-533 (1987)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.12.000531


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Abstract

Depression of the surface index of TiLiNbO3 channel waveguides by secondary diffusion of MgO forms a buffer layer that optically isolates the guided modes from attenuation caused by electrodes placed over the guides. For x-cut, z-propagating mode-conversion devices, we find high stability to optical drift when a dc voltage as high as 60 V is applied to electrodes (typical gap of 5 μm) to establish bias operating points. Photoconductivity is found to limit the long-term stability. Devices operating at 0.633-μm wavelength generally suffer significant drift in their mode-conversion efficiency when 100 μW or more of throughput power is present and a bias of 14 V is used. 10-μW throughput at the same wavelength is found to be stable over an 8-h period. At 0.8-μm wavelength, bias voltages as high as 60 V may be used for stable operation even at 100-μW optical throughput.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 22, 1987
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 1987
Published: July 1, 1987

Citation
N. A. Sanford and W. C. Robinson, "Direct-current bias stable Ti:LiNbO3 TE-TM mode converters produced by magnesium postdiffusion," Opt. Lett. 12, 531-533 (1987)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-12-7-531


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References

  1. J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.
  3. S. Thaniyavarn, Opt. Lett. 11, 39 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), paper 1A-2.
  5. For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).
  6. N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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