Buried planar optical waveguides made by a purely thermal backdiffusion K+-Na+ ion-exchange process have been demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, on soda-lime glass substrates. The potassium-ion concentration profile is determined using a scanning electron microscope technique, which is then correlated to the numerical simulation of the ion-exchange fabrication process.
© 1990 Optical Society of America
P. C. Noutsios and G. L. Yip, "Shallow buried waveguides made by purely thermal migration of K+ ions in glass," Opt. Lett. 15, 212-214 (1990)