Mechanical forces can be converted into electrical signal frequencies at high linearity and precision over a sevendecade range by use of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a mixing photodiode. Active signal stabilization of the laser is not required. The observed errors (drift, creep, and hysteresis) are at the lower measuring limit. Diode-pumped Nd:YAG technology offers the chance to realize miniaturized high-accuracy sensors for force and acceleration.
© 1993 Optical Society of America
Wolfgang Holzapfel and Martin Finnemann, "High-resolution force sensing by a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 2062-2064 (1993)