We investigate the threshold behavior of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s) by solving the set of coupled equations for carrier density, field amplitude, and plasma and lattice temperatures. We show that, because of plasma heating and lattice heating, the threshold of VCSEL’s can be continuous or discontinuous with bistability between lasing and nonlasing states (correspondingly second-or first-order phase transition), depending on the relative position of the cavity frequency to the gain bandwidth and on the ambient (substrate) temperature of the device.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: December 16, 1994
Published: May 15, 1995
C. Z. Ning and J. V. Moloney, "Thermal effects on the threshold of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: first- and second-order phase transitions," Opt. Lett. 20, 1151-1153 (1995)