OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1995
  • pp: 2372–2374

Determination of absolute two-photon excitation cross sections by in situ second-order autocorrelation

Chris Xu, Jeffrey Guild, Watt W. Webb, and Winfried Denk  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 2372-2374 (1995)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (374 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



It is shown that one can obtain absolute two-photon fluorescence excitation (TPE) cross sections without prior knowledge of the temporal profile of the excitation pulse. It is sufficient to record the fluorescence generated by two spatially superimposed but temporally shifted halves of the excitation beam as a function of their relative delay. Measurements employed a Michelson interferometer with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser as the excitation source. The TPE cross section for fluorescein [(46 ± 10) × 10−58 m4 s/photon] obtained at 782 nm with this technique agrees with single-mode cw excitation data. We find no indication of a deviation from the power-squared dependence of TPE.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 6, 1995
Published: December 1, 1995

Chris Xu, Winfried Denk, Jeffrey Guild, and Watt W. Webb, "Determination of absolute two-photon excitation cross sections by in situ second-order autocorrelation," Opt. Lett. 20, 2372-2374 (1995)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Denk, K. R. Delaney, A. Gelperin, D. Kleinfeld, B. W. Strowbridge, D. W. Tank, R. Yuste, J. Neurosci. Methods 54, 151 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Denk, D. W. Piston, W. W. Webb, in The Handbook of Confocal Microscopy, J. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
  4. R. Yuste, W. Denk, Nature (London) 375, 682 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, W. W. Webb, J. Microsc. 178, 20 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Williams, D. W. Piston, W. W. Webb, FASEB J. 8, 804 (1994). [PubMed]
  7. A. J. Twarowski, D. S. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 259 (1977)M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990). [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Hermann, J. Ducuing, Phys. Rev. A 5, 2557 (1972). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Clarendon, Oxford, 1983), p. 82.
  10. S. M. Kennedy, F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 58, 2643 (1986)R. D. Jones, P. R. Callis, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4301 (1988). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Muller, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, Opt. Lett. 20, 1038 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Diels, in Dye Laser Principles, F. J. Duarte, L. W. Hillman, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), p. 104.
  13. W. W. Webb, C. Xu, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 nm to 990 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published)C. Xu, J. Guild, W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 68, A197 (1995).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited