OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 21, Iss. 17 — Sep. 1, 1996
  • pp: 1411–1413

Two-photon-excitation scanning microscopy of living neurons with a saturable Bragg reflector mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlFl laser

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, W. H. Knox, and S. Tsuda  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 21, Issue 17, pp. 1411-1413 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3148 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A Cr:LiSrAlFl laser, pumped with a diffraction-limited laser diode and mode locked with a saturable Bragg reflector, produces 90-fs pulses at 860 nm with a cw power as high as 88 mW in two beams. It is shown that this recently developed, compact, solid-state laser can be used as an excitation source for two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Morphological and functional images of neocortical and cerebellar neurons were obtained with submicrometer three-dimensional resolution. Single dendritic spines could easily be resolved deep in scattering tissue.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: April 1, 1996
Published: September 1, 1996

K. Svoboda, W. H. Knox, S. Tsuda, and W. Denk, "Two-photon-excitation scanning microscopy of living neurons with a saturable Bragg reflector mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSrAlFl laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1411-1413 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Denk, D. W. Piston, W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J.B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995) p. 445.
  2. R. Yuste, W. Denk, Nature (London) 375, 682 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Denk, M. Sugimori, R. Llinas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 8279 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Svoboda, D. W. Tank, W. Denk, Science 272, 716 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Denk, J. R. Holt, G. M. G. Shepherd, D. P. Corey, Neuron 15, 1311 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Denk, K. R. Delanay, A. Gelperin, D. Kleinfeld, B. W. Strowbridge, D. W. Tank, R. Yuste, J. Neurosci. Methods 54, 151 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, A. S. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2678, 38 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, M. T. Asom, Opt. Lett. 17, 505 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, Opt. Lett. 18, 983 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. M. W. French, R. Mellish, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florenz, Opt. Lett. 18, 1943 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 19, 2143 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. de Souza, W. Y. Jan, J. E. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 20, 1406 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Xu, W. W. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6629 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. E. Alger, S. S. Dhanjal, R. Dingleding, J. Garthwaite, G. Herderson, G. L. King, P. Lipton, A. North, P. A. Schwartzkroin, T. A. Sears, M. Segal, T. S. Whittingham, J. Williams, in Brain Slices, R. Dingledine, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1984), p. 381.
  17. O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, F. J. Sigworth, Pflueggers Arch. 391, 85 (1981). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited