The concept of soliton internal mode is introduced to explain quantitatively the long-lived oscillations of self-guided beams, or breathing spatial solitons. Cubic–quintic nonlinearity is considered in detail, and it is shown that the existence of the internal mode affects strongly the beam propagation in non-Kerr media, leading to oscillatory dependence of the output width of the beam versus its input power.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Vsevolod V. Afanasjev, Pak L. Chu, and Yuri S. Kivshar, "Breathing spatial solitons in non-Kerr media," Opt. Lett. 22, 1388-1390 (1997)