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Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 23, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1998
  • pp: 13–15

Microtags with 150-nm line gratings fabricated by use of extreme-ultraviolet lithography

M. R. Descour, D. I. Simon, W. C. Sweatt, M. E. Warren, S. H. Kravitz, K. D. Krenz, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, and R. H. Stulen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 13-15 (1998)

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The microtag concept is an anticounterfeiting and security measure. Microtags are computer-generated holograms (CGH’s) consisting of 150-nm lines arranged to form 300-nm-period gratings. The microtags that we describe were designed for readout at 442nm . The smallest microtag measures 56µm×80 µm when viewed at normal incidence. The CGH design process uses a modified iterative Fourier-transform algorithm to create either phase-only or phase-and-amplitude microtags. We also report on a simple and compact readout system for recording the diffraction pattern formed by a microtag. The measured diffraction patterns agree very well with predictions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(070.2590) Fourier optics and signal processing : ABCD transforms
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography

M. R. Descour, D. I. Simon, W. C. Sweatt, M. E. Warren, S. H. Kravitz, K. D. Krenz, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, and R. H. Stulen, "Microtags with 150-nm line gratings fabricated by use of extreme-ultraviolet lithography," Opt. Lett. 23, 13-15 (1998)

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  1. W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, and K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
  2. The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (Semiconductor Industry Association, San Jose, Calif., 1994), p. 11.
  3. D. A. Tichenor, in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike and D. T. Atwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 89.
  4. M. R. Descour, W. C. Sweatt, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Krenz, M. E. Warren, S. H. Kravitz, D. A. Tichenor, R. H. Stulen, and T. L. Love, Opt. Lett. 21, 1951 (1996).
  5. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).
  6. M. R. Descour, W. C. Sweatt, and K. D. Krenz, “Mass-producible microtags for security applications: calculated fabrication tolerances by rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  7. P. F. Keller and A. F. Gmitro, Appl. Opt. 31, 5517 (1992).

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