We introduce 4Pi confocal microscopy with destructive interference of converging waves. Linear lobe deconvolution as well as nonlinear restoration of 4Pi confocal raw data with their point-spread functions (PSF’s) leads to almost-identical images, irrespective of whether the 4Pi confocal PSF relies on constructive or destructive interference. Three-dimensional imaging of microtubules of a mouse fibroblast cell yielded an axial resolution near 100-nm in both cases. Moreover, restoration of 4Pi confocal images of the same object with alternate phases is introduced as a powerful test for (nonlinear) image restoration.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
(100.3020) Image processing : Image reconstruction-restoration
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
Stefan W. Hell and Matthias Nagorni, "4Pi confocal microscopy with alternate interference," Opt. Lett. 23, 1567-1569 (1998)