The intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic generation were simultaneously measured by use of an ac optical balanced homodyne detection system. In this system the surface second-harmonic wave was superimposed upon a local oscillator wave generated by a barium borate nonlinear optical crystal and then detected as an interference signal. Extremely high sensitivity of 3 aW (6 photons/s) and high precision were achieved by use of a lock-in amplifier, in which an interference signal of fundamental waves was used as a reference signal. Simultaneous measurement of the intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic waves generated from native-oxidized Si(111) surfaces is demonstrated.
© 1998 Optical Society of America
Jun Chen, Susumu Machida, and Yoshihisa Yamanoto, "Simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase in surface second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 23, 676-678 (1998)