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  • Vol. 24, Iss. 4 — Feb. 15, 1999
  • pp: 211–213

Diffraction of light from phase gratings at large modulation depths: transient-grating experiments in liquids at high laser powers

Huxiong Chen and Gerald Diebold  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 4, pp. 211-213 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.24.000211


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Abstract

Generation of transient gratings in weakly absorbing liquids with a high-power laser gives rise to changes in the fluid’s index of refraction that are sufficiently large to produce both multiple diffraction of a probe laser beam and a time response anomaly. The coupled-wave approach to the solution of the volume diffraction problem is shown to predict the existence of high-order diffraction of the probe beam and the time dependence of the diffraction intensity of each order. In addition, criteria for the Raman–Nath and Bragg diffraction regimes are derived from the first-order, coupled-wave equations.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings

Citation
Huxiong Chen and Gerald Diebold, "Diffraction of light from phase gratings at large modulation depths: transient-grating experiments in liquids at high laser powers," Opt. Lett. 24, 211-213 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-4-211


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References

  1. C. V. Raman and N. S. Nagendra Nath, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Section A 2, 406, 413 (1935); 3, 75, 119, 459 (1936); L. Brillouin, Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 103 (1921); La Diffraction de la Lumiere par des Ultrasons (Hermann, Paris, 1933); M. V. Berry, The Diffraction of Light by Ultrasound (Academic, London, 1966).
  2. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  3. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811 (1981). Figures 2–5 of this reference show how changes in the strength parameter caused by density excursions determine the diffracted light intensity.
  4. T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
  5. H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).
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  10. R. T. Cambron and J. M. Harris, Anal. Chem. 67, 365 (1995).
  11. We use the word “quasi-sinusoidal” to describe the simplest intensity versus time waveform seen in transient-grating experiments, which is given by (-1+coswt) 2.
  12. Fitting of the experimental waveforms involves a convolution over the time profile of the laser pulse; since the exact time profile of the laser beam cannot be accurately modeled with simple functions such as a Gaussian or a Lorentzian, a quantitative fit of the experimental curves was not carried out.
  13. T. Jaaskelainen and T. Hytonen, Opt. Commun. 64, 19 (1987). These authors have shown the Gaylord–Moharam criterion for the Raman–Nath regime to be necessary but not sufficient.
  14. H. X. Chen, “Laser induced effects in carbon suspensions and diffraction by volume gratings in liquids,” Ph.D dissertation (Brown University, Providence, R.I., 1997).

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