We describe a novel electrochemical technique for the nonlithographic, fluidic pick-and-place assembly of optoelectronic devices by electrical and optical addressing. An electrochemical cell was developed that consists of indium tin oxide (ITO) and n -type silicon substrates as the two electrode materials and deionized water (R = 18 MΩ) as the electrolytic medium between the two electrodes. 0.8–20-µm-diameter negatively charged polystyrene beads, 50–100-µm-diameter SiO<sub>2</sub> pucks, and 50-µm LED's were successfully integrated upon a patterned silicon substrate by electrical addressing. In addition, 0.8-µm-diameter beads were integrated upon a homogeneous silicon substrate by optical addressing. This method can be applied to massively parallel assembly (>1000 × 1000 arrays) of multiple types of devices (of a wide size range) with very fast (a few seconds) and accurate positioning.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
Mihrimah Ozkan, Osman Kibar, Cengiz S. Ozkan, and Sadik C. Esener, "Massively parallel low-cost pick-and-place of optoelectronic devices by electrochemical fluidic processing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1285-1287 (2000)