The photorefractive holographic dynamics of grating formation in photochromic doubly doped LiNbO<sub>3</sub>:Fe:Mn crystal is studied numerically and analytically in terms of the two-center model of Kukhtarev <i>et al.</i> [Ferroelectrics <b>22,</b> 949 (1979)]. The relations among the recorded and fixed space-charge fields and the doping densities, the oxidation-reduction states of the fields, and the intensities of UV-sensitizing and red recording beams are studied. Important conditions and effects are found, and an optimal prescription for material doping and oxidation-reduction processing is suggested in which the crystal can be strongly oxidized and the Mn-doping density is smaller than the Fe-doping density.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
Youwen Liu, Liren Liu, and Changhe Zhou, "Prescription for optimizing holograms in LiNbO3:Fe:Mn," Opt. Lett. 25, 551-553 (2000)