For lumped-element electro-optic modulators, the sensitivity (∂φ/∂V) of the phase, φ , in response to an applied voltage V is related to the optical group delay, Tg , and the bandwidth, Δω . This relationship imposes a fundamental trade-off between the sensitivity and the bandwidth of electro-optic modulators: (∂φ/∂V)Δω= (dn/dV)(ω /n) , where n is the optical index. A similar relationship for traveling-wave modulators sets an upper limit on (∂φ/∂V) that is proportional to Tg .
© 2001 Optical Society of America
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(230.4110) Optical devices : Modulators
(250.7360) Optoelectronics : Waveguide modulators
R. C. Williamson, "Sensitivity–bandwidth product for electro-optic modulators," Opt. Lett. 26, 1362-1363 (2001)