Highly directional emissions from whispering-gallery modes are demonstrated in deformed nonaxisymmetric fused-silica microspheres. Ray trajectory analysis indicates that ray dynamics in a three-dimensional reso-nator differs qualitatively from that of a two-dimensional system, with Arnol’d diffusion playing an essential role in the three-dimensional system.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
Scott Lacey and Hailin Wang, "Directional emission from whispering-gallery modes in deformed fused-silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 26, 1943-1945 (2001)