The gains and noise figures of discrete second-order-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers utilizing copropagating and counterpropagating pump configurations were experimentally obtained, and the gain results were compared with computer simulations. It was found that the additional gain that is due to second-order Raman pumping is larger for the copropagating pumps than for the counterpropagating pumps, in agreement with simulations. In contrast to distributed second-order-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers, a slight increase in noise figure, by as much as ~1 dB was observed relative to the single-pump scheme. However, the advantages of second-order pumping in discrete amplifiers include greater flexibility in design of the gain distribution along the fiber and the ability to spectrally distribute the pump powers to avoid undesired nonlinear effects.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, P. C. Reeves-Hall, and J. R. Taylor, "Copropagating and counterpropagating pumps in second-order- pumped discrete fiber Raman amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1708-1710 (2002)