Frequency and timing noise added in a linear optical amplifier of gain G grows as (G-1)/G. Provided that the pulse is initially in a coherent state, the output frequency and timing noise cannot exceed twice the input value. It is also shown that, in a transmission line with zero net gain and loss, the frequency and timing noise added in the lossy medium is equal to or larger than the noise added in the amplifier.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise
(270.5530) Quantum optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
Victor V. Kozlov, "Quantum noise limits on frequency and timing for optical pulses in a linear high-gain amplifier," Opt. Lett. 27, 1723-1725 (2002)