We present a method of three-dimensional observation of internal defects in semiconductor crystals for blue lasers by use of two-photon excitation. We excite photoluminescence by using a two-photon process. Since semiconductor materials have intrinsically high absorption in the short-wavelength region, the excitation light of photoluminescence is largely absorbed by the crystals. It is difficult to observe defects in deep regions. Two-photon excitation can overcome this limitation because near-infrared light can be used instead of blue light for excitation of photoluminescence, and the near-infrared light is absorbed at only the focused point. The excitation light can penetrate into the deep regions of the crystal. We succeeded in observing defects in a ZnSe crystal ~200 µm below the crystal surface. This is, as far as we know, the first demonstration of the observation of three-dimensional structures of defects in semiconductor crystals by the use of two-photon excitation.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
Yoshimasa Kawata, Shigetoshi Kunieda, and Toru Kaneko, "Three-dimensional observation of internal defects in semiconductor crystals by use of two-photon excitation," Opt. Lett. 27, 297-299 (2002)