Despite widespread use of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, development of endoscopes for nonlinear optical imaging has been stymied by the degradation of ultrashort excitation pulses that occurs within optical fiber as a result of the combined effects of group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. We introduce microendoscopes (350–1000μm in diameter) based on gradient-index microlenses that effectively eliminate self-phase modulation within the endoscope. Laser-scanning multiphoton fluorescence endoscopy exhibits micrometer-scale resolution. We used multiphoton endoscopes to image fluorescently labeled neurons and dendrites.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(170.2150) Medical optics and biotechnology : Endoscopic imaging
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.5810) Medical optics and biotechnology : Scanning microscopy
Juergen C. Jung and Mark J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902-904 (2003)