OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 28, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 2003
  • pp: 149–151

Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor

K. L. Baker, J. Brase, M. Kartz, S. S. Olivier, B. Sawvel, and J. Tucker  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 149-151 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (202 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The use of a Hartmann wave-front sensor to accurately measure the line-integrated electron density gradients formed in laser-produced and z-pinch plasma experiments is examined. This wave-front sensor may be used with a soft-x-ray laser as well as with incoherent line emission at multikilovolt x-ray energies. This diagnostic is significantly easier to use than interferometery and moiré deflectometry, both of which have been demonstrated with soft-x-ray lasers. This scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the visible region by use of a Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor and a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to simulate a phase profile that could occur when an x-ray probe passes through a plasma. The merits of using a Hartmann sensor include a wide dynamic range, broadband or low-coherence-length light capability, high x-ray efficiency, two-dimensional gradient determination, multiplexing capability, and experimental simplicity. Hartmann sensors could also be utilized for wavelength testing of extreme-ultraviolet lithography components and x-ray phase imaging of biological specimens.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
(350.5400) Other areas of optics : Plasmas

K. L. Baker, J. Brase, M. Kartz, S. S. Olivier, B. Sawvel, and J. Tucker, "Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor," Opt. Lett. 28, 149-151 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. L. B. Da Silva, J. T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991 (1995).
  2. A. S. Wan, L. B. Da Silva, J. T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, S. B. Libby, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and F. Weber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 447 (1996).
  3. K. Takahashi, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, H. Hashimoto, Y. Kato, K. Mima, F. A. Weber, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and L. B. Da Silva, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2405 (2000).
  4. J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 25, 356 (2000).
  5. D. Ress, L. B. D. Silva, R. A. London, J. E. Trebes, S. Mrowka, R. J. Procassini, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and D. E. Lehr, Science 265, 514 (1994).
  6. C. D. Decker, R. A. London, J. A. Harte, L. V. Powers, and J. E. Trebes, Phys. Rev. E 57, 5952 (1998).
  7. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1998).
  8. S. S. Olivier, J. An, K. Avicola, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Base, H. W. Friedman, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, Proc. SPIE 2534, 26 (1995).
  9. B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevicks, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, Appl. Opt. 37, 4553 (1998).
  10. J. A. Koch, R. W. Presta, R. A. Sacks, R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. J. Dailey, M. Feldman, A. A. Grey, F. R. Holdener, J. T. Salmon, L. G. Seppala, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. T. Whistler, S. E. Winters, and B. W. Woods, Appl. Opt. 39, 4540 (2000).
  11. B. Schafer and K. Mann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2663 (2000).
  12. S. Le Pape, Ph. Zeitoun, J. F. Hergot, B. Carre, P. Dhez, M. François, M. Idir, H. Merdji, D. Ros, A. Carillon, and P. Salieres, J. Phys. IV 11, Pr2–533 (2001).
  13. S. Le Pape, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, P. Dhez, J. J. Rocca, and M. François, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183901 (2002).
  14. S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. Miles Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, Opt. Eng. 41, 1797 (2002).
  15. G. A. Tyler and D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 804 (1982).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited