The 4<sup>2</sup>S<sub>1/2</sub>– 3<sup>2</sup><i>D</i><sub>5/2</sub> electric quadrupole transition in calcium ions, which is expected to be used in calcium-ion optical frequency standards, is spectroscopically investigated with a laser system that uses only fundamental waves of diode lasers as light sources. Four Zeeman components allowed by the selection rules for the electric quadrupole transition are identified. As for one Zeeman component, one large carrier and accompanying smaller first sidebands are observed, which implies that Lamb–Dicke confinement of the ion is achieved. The compact and reliable system for spectroscopy of single calcium ions described is advantageous for realization of practical optical frequency standards.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
Kenji Toyoda, Hideyuki Naka, Hidenori Kitamura, Hideyuki Sawamura, and Shinji Urabe, "Sideband-resolved spectroscopy on the 4 2S1/2–3 2D5/2 transition in single calcium ions by use of fundamental waves of diode lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1270-1272 (2004)