We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of Ince–Gaussian modes directly generated in a stable resonator. By slightly breaking the symmetry of the cavity of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO 4 laser and its pump beam configuration we were able to generate single high-order Ince–Gaussian modes of high quality. The observed transverse modes have an inherent elliptic structure and exhibit remarkable agreement with theoretical predictions.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
Ulrich T. Schwarz, Miguel A. Bandres, and Julio C. Gutiérrez-Vega, "Observation of Ince–Gaussian modes in stable resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 1870-1872 (2004)