OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 2004
  • pp: 2521–2523

Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective

Werner Göbel, Jason N. D. Kerr, Axel Nimmerjahn, and Fritjof Helmchen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 21, pp. 2521-2523 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (862 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a miniature, flexible two-photon microscope consisting of a fused coherent optical fiber bundle with 30,000 cores and a gradient-index lens objective. The laser focus of a standard two-photon laser-scanning microscope was scanned over the entrance surface of the fiber bundle, resulting in sequential coupling into individual cores. Fluorescent light was detected through the fiber bundle. Micrometer-sized fluorescent beads and pollen grains were readily resolved. In addition, fluorescently labeled blood vessels were imaged through the fiber bundle in rat brain in vivo.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(110.2350) Imaging systems : Fiber optics imaging
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

Werner Göbel, Jason N. D. Kerr, Axel Nimmerjahn, and Fritjof Helmchen, "Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective," Opt. Lett. 29, 2521-2523 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. W. Denk and K. Svoboda, Neuron 18, 351 (1997).
  2. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
  3. F. Helmchen, Exp. Physiol. 87, 6 (2002).
  4. D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
  5. J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 28, 902 (2003).
  6. M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908 (2004).
  7. J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, J. Neurophysiol. (to be published), ().
  8. Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, Appl. Opt. 38, 7133 (1999).
  9. J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
  10. V. Dubaj, A. Mazzolini, A. Wood, and M. Harris, J. Microsc. 207, 108 (2002).
  11. F. Helmchen, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Appl. Opt. 41, 2930 (2002).
  12. M. M. Dickens, M. P. Houlne, S. Mitra, and D. J. Bornhop, Opt. Eng. 38, 1836 (1999).
  13. W. Göbel, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Lett. 29, 1285 (2004).
  14. S. W. Clark, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 26, 1320 (2001).
  15. M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).
  16. P. Theer, M. T. Hasan, and W. Denk, Opt. Lett. 28, 1022 (2003).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited