OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 30, Iss. 11 — Jun. 1, 2005
  • pp: 1291–1293

Superhigh numerical aperture (NA>1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach

Yingyan Huang and Seng-Tiong Ho  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 11, pp. 1291-1293 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (336 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a novel scheme for obtaining a superhigh numerical aperture gradient-index (SHNA GRIN) lens from multiple thin layers of two or more materials with large refractive-index contrast. Design procedures for the lens are described, including variation of the layer thickness to achieve focusing and of the thickness limit to reduce scattering loss. We use an exact numerical solution by the finite-difference time-domain method to evaluate the lens's performance. Specific examples of a SHNA GRIN lens with a SiO2-TiO2 material system designed for fiber coupling to a nanowaveguide are shown to have focusing FWHM spot sizes of 0.53-0.7 µm at lambda=1.55 µm (corresponding to a NA of approximately 1.6-1.1) with 2.7-2.4% more loss than an ideal continuous index profile GRIN lens. With this approach, a SHNA GRIN lens with a NA of >1.5 and a length of <20 µm can be achieved with currently available thin-film deposition techniques.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

Yingyan Huang and Seng-Tiong Ho, "Superhigh numerical aperture (NA>1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach," Opt. Lett. 30, 1291-1293 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, W. G. Bi, R. C. Tiberio, C. W. Tu, and S. T. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).
  3. K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1039 (1980).
  4. D. T. Moore, Appl. Opt. 19, 1035 (1980).
  5. J. E. Samuels and D. T. Moore, Appl. Opt. 29, 4042 (1990).
  6. B. Messerschmidt, U. Possner, A. Pfeil, and T. Possner, Proc. SPIE 3424, 88 (1998).
  7. K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 302 (1966).
  8. C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
  9. D. Rafizadeh, and S. T. Ho, Opt. Commun. 141, 17 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited