OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Anthony J. Campillo
  • Vol. 31, Iss. 12 — Jun. 15, 2006
  • pp: 1836–1838

Computer-generated volume holograms fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

Wenjian Cai, Theodore J. Reber, and Rafael Piestun  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 31, Issue 12, pp. 1836-1838 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (195 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We define computer-generated volume holograms (CGVHs) as arbitrary 3D refractive index modulations designed to perform optical functions based on diffraction, scattering, and interference phenomena. CGVHs can differ dramatically from classical volume holograms in terms of coding possibilities, and from thin computer-generated holograms in terms of efficiency and selectivity. We propose an encoding technique for designing such holograms and demonstrate the concept by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses to produce localized refractive index modifications in glass. These CGVHs show a significant increase in efficiency with thickness. Consequently, they are attractive for photonic integration with free-space and guided-wave devices, as well as for encoding spatial and temporal information.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: January 17, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 8, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 9, 2006

Wenjian Cai, Theodore J. Reber, and Rafael Piestun, "Computer-generated volume holograms fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 31, 1836-1838 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, Appl. Opt. 5, 967 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, Prog. Opt. 28, 1 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. F. H. Mok, G. W. Burr, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 21, 896 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, and M. C. Bashaw, Proc. IEEE 92, 1231 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Barbastathis, M. Balberg, and D. J. Brady, Opt. Lett. 24, 811 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Brady, A. G. S. Chen, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Lett. 17, 610 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Rosen, M. Segev, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 18, 744 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Piestun, B. Spektor, and J. Shamir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1837 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Bartelt, Appl. Opt. 23, 1499 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Deng and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 25, 1046 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Borgsmuller, S. Noehte, C. Dietrich, T. Kresse, and R. Manner, Appl. Opt. 42, 5274 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. M. Chambers, G. P. Nordin, and S. Kim, Opt. Express 11, 27 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. See also W. Cai, T. Reber, and R. Piestun, Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuEE3.
  15. R. Piestun and J. Shamir, Opt. Lett. 19, 771 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. Finlay, T. Her, J. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, Opt. Lett. 30, 1060 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2200 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. W. Cai, T. Reber, and R. Piestun, presented at Photonics Research, CPIA Annual Meeting, Boulder, Colorado, November 10, 2004.
  21. R. Piestun, presented at Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices II, Photonics West, San Jose, California, January 23-27, 2005.
  22. Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Opt. Express 13, 2433 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited