We describe the fabrication and characterization of a nanostructured diffractive element with near-zero reflection losses. In this element, subwavelength nanostructures emulating adiabatic index matching are integrated on the surface of a diffractive microstructure to suppress reflected diffraction orders. The fabricated silicon grating exhibits reflected efficiencies that are suppressed by 2 orders of magnitude over broad wavelength bands and wide incident angles. Theoretical models of the fabricated structure based on rigorous coupled-wave analysis and effective medium theory are in agreement with the experimental data. The proposed principles can be applied to improve the performance of any diffractive structures, potentially leading to more efficient Fresnel lenses, holographic elements, and integrated optical systems.
© 2011 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 18, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 8, 2011
Published: June 15, 2011
Chih-Hao Chang, Jose A. Dominguez-Caballero, Hyungryul J. Choi, and George Barbastathis, "Nanostructured gradient-index antireflection diffractive optics," Opt. Lett. 36, 2354-2356 (2011)