OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 37, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 2012
  • pp: 4495–4497

Assessing the tissue-imaging performance of confocal microscope architectures via Monte Carlo simulations

Ye Chen, Danni Wang, and Jonathan T. C. Liu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 21, pp. 4495-4497 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (435 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Various confocal microscope architectures have been developed for in vivo tissue imaging, including single-axis confocal (SAC) and dual-axis confocal (DAC) configurations utilizing both point-scanning (PS) and line-scanning (LS) approaches. While it is known that these design variations lead to tradeoffs in imaging performance, a quantitative comparison of the imaging performance of these configurations in highly turbid media would be of value. Here, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the optical-sectioning capability of these various confocal microscope architectures in reflectance mode. In particular, we investigate the axial and transverse responses of these configurations to reflective targets at various depths within a homogenous scattering medium. We find that the DAC-PS configuration results in superior rejection of multiply scattered background light compared to all other configurations, followed in performance by the SAC-PS, the DAC-LS, and then the SAC-LS. Line scanning with both the DAC and SAC configurations leads to photon crosstalk between pixels. However, at shallow depths, the axial and transverse resolution of all configurations is maintained in a homogeneous scattering medium.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.5810) Medical optics and biotechnology : Scanning microscopy
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(110.0113) Imaging systems : Imaging through turbid media

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: August 3, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 25, 2012
Published: October 26, 2012

Ye Chen, Danni Wang, and Jonathan T. C. Liu, "Assessing the tissue-imaging performance of confocal microscope architectures via Monte Carlo simulations," Opt. Lett. 37, 4495-4497 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1995).
  2. J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, T. D. Wang, and G. S. Kino, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034020 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, Appl. Opt. 46, 1843 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. S. Sabharwal, A. R. Rouse, L. Donaldson, M. F. Hopkins, and A. F. Gmitro, Appl. Opt. 38, 7133 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K. B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Appl. Opt. 44, 1792 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. G. Patel, M. Rajadhyaksha, and C. A. Dimarzio, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2231 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Simon and C. A. Dimarzio, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064020 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, and A. F. Gmitro, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044024 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70(1941). [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990). [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, J. M. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited