OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 37, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 2012
  • pp: 4835–4837

Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging

Mingtao Zhao, Yong Huang, and Jin U. Kang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 23, pp. 4835-4837 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (339 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography fiber probe design using a sapphire ball lens for cross-sectional imaging and sensing for retina vitrectomy surgery. The high refractive index (n=1.75) of the sapphire ball lens improves the focusing power and enables the probe to operate in the intraocular space. The highly precise spherical shape of the sapphire lens also reduces astigmatism and coma compared to fused nonspherical ball lenses. A theoretical sensitivity model for common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was developed to assess its optimal performance based on an unbalanced photodetector configuration. Two probe designs—with working distances 415 and 1221 μm and lateral resolution 11 and 18 μm—were implemented with sensitivity up to 88 dB, which is significantly higher than previously reported CP-OCT probes. We assessed the performances of the fiber probes by cross-sectional imaging a bovine cornea and retina in air and in vitreous gel with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sapphire ball lens-based CP-OCT probes directly inserted into the vitreous gel of a bovine eyeball for ocular imaging with a sensitivity approaching the theoretical limitation of CP-OCT.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(170.4470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmology
(170.5755) Medical optics and biotechnology : Retina scanning
(130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: September 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2012
Published: November 19, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Mingtao Zhao, Yong Huang, and Jin U. Kang, "Sapphire ball lens-based fiber probe for common-path optical coherence tomography and its applications in corneal and retinal imaging," Opt. Lett. 37, 4835-4837 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178(1991). [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 17, 6 (1995).
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, Opt. Express 14, 6502 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Zhao and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 34, 205 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Zawadzki, J. Steven, O. Scot, M. Zhao, B. Bradley, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. Werner, Opt. Express 13, 8532 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. W. A. Benalcazar, W. Jung, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 37, 1100 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. X. Li, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 26, 1906 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011003 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Lett. 30, 1791 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. MacLachlan, B. C. Becker, J. C. T. Tabarés, G. W. Podnar, L. A. Lobes, and C. N. Riviere, IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 28, 17 (2012).
  12. R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1184 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Mao, S. Chang, S. Sherif, and C. Flueraru, Appl. Opt. 46, 5887 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 16, 12 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 11, 2953 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited