OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 37, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 2012
  • pp: 4940–4942

Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry

Xin Li, Shiyi Xiao, Bengeng Cai, Qiong He, Tie Jun Cui, and Lei Zhou  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 23, pp. 4940-4942 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3763 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show that a flat metasurface with a parabolic reflection-phase distribution can focus an impinging plane wave to a point image in reflection geometry. Our system is much thinner than conventional geometric-optics devices and does not suffer the energy-loss issues encountered by many metamaterial devices working in transmission geometry. We designed realistic microwave samples and performed near-field scanning experiments to verify the focusing effect. Experimental results are in good agreement with full wave simulations, model calculations, and theoretical analyses.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 5, 2012
Published: November 28, 2012

Xin Li, Shiyi Xiao, Bengeng Cai, Qiong He, Tie Jun Cui, and Lei Zhou, "Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry," Opt. Lett. 37, 4940-4942 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Lin, T. J. Cui, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, and R. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131904 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Liu, X. M. Yang, J. G. Gollub, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 073506 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, Nat. Mater. 9, 129 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. O. Paul, B. Reinhard, B. Krolla, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 241110 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, Opt. Express 18, 27748 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Ma and Z. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 183103 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Ma, M. A. Escobar, and Z. Liu, Phys. Rev. B 84, 195142 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).
  16. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, Nat. Mater. 11, 426 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. We neglected the amplitude differences of waves radiated from the SC at different local positions. We expect that it may not significantly influence the focusing effect since field radiated from a point (line) source varies slowly versus r(E(r)∝r−1,ln(r)).
  18. L. Zhou, X. Q. Huang, and C. T. Chan, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 100 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. Some of calculated/measured field patterns are for Re(Ey) (with phase included) so that wave propagations can be easily identified.
  20. D. Sievenpiper, L. Zhang, R. Broas, N. G. Alexopolous, and E. Yablonovitch, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 47, 2059 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Hao, L. Zhou, and C. T. Chan, Appl. Phys. A 87, 281 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. Simulations were performed using the EastFDTD v2.0 Beta, DONGJUN Science and Technology Co., China.
  23. B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. The magnetic slab represents the region occupied by the spacer and the upper metal sheet, with a total thickness of 1.65 mm.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited