We captured stable self-oscillations of a toroidal bubble moving away from a laser propelled cavity object in water using a high-speed imaging system. The entire laser propelling process generates a hemispherical bubble, two toroidal bubbles, and a microbubble cluster. The hemispherical bubble is formed by laser breakdown in water. The toroidal bubbles are formed by the variation of the pressure field as a result of the propagation, reflection, and convergence of the laser plasma shockwave in the cavity.
© 2013 Optical Society of America
Lasers and Laser Optics
Original Manuscript: May 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 11, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2013
Published: September 23, 2013
Jun Chen, Hong-Chao Zhang, Zhong-Hua Shen, Jian Lu, and Xiao-Wu Ni, "Formation and dynamics of a toroidal bubble during laser propelling a cavity object in water," Opt. Lett. 38, 3803-3806 (2013)