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Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 38, Iss. 20 — Oct. 15, 2013
  • pp: 3980–3983

High-quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2 for waveguiding applications

Tapani Alasaarela, Lasse Karvonen, Henri Jussila, Antti Säynätjoki, Soroush Mehravar, Robert A. Norwood, Nasser Peyghambarian, Khanh Kieu, Ilkka Tittonen, and Harri Lipsanen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 20, pp. 3980-3983 (2013)

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We demonstrate a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to make high-quality nanocrystalline titanium dioxide ( TiO 2 ) with intermediate Al 2 O 3 layers to limit the crystal size. The process is based on titanium chloride ( TiCl 4 ) + water and trimethyl aluminum ( TMA ) + ozone processes at 250°C deposition temperature. The waveguide losses measured using a prism coupling method for 633 and 1551 nm wavelengths are as low as 0.2 ± 0.1 dB / mm with the smallest crystal size, with losses increasing with crystal size. In comparison, plain TiO 2 deposited at 250°C without the intermediate Al 2 O 3 layers shows high scattering losses and is not viable as waveguide material. The third-order optical nonlinearity decreases with smaller crystal size as verified by third-harmonic generation microscopy but still remains high for all samples. Crystallinity controlled ALD-grown TiO 2 is an excellent candidate for various optical applications, where good thermal stability and high third-order optical nonlinearity are needed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.2785) Thin films : Guided wave applications

ToC Category:
Thin Films

Original Manuscript: June 3, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 8, 2013
Published: October 2, 2013

Tapani Alasaarela, Lasse Karvonen, Henri Jussila, Antti Säynätjoki, Soroush Mehravar, Robert A. Norwood, Nasser Peyghambarian, Khanh Kieu, Ilkka Tittonen, and Harri Lipsanen, "High-quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2 for waveguiding applications," Opt. Lett. 38, 3980-3983 (2013)

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