OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 38, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 2013
  • pp: 4433–4436

Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography

Cedric Blatter, Branislav Grajciar, Leopold Schmetterer, and Rainer A. Leitgeb  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 21, pp. 4433-4436 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (362 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography is a stable and accurate method to extract the absolute velocity of vessels close to perpendicular to the optical axis by illuminating the sample under two different angles. However it requires knowledge of the vessel angle in the en face plane. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a direct calculation of the flow out of bidirectional Doppler cross sections perpendicular to the illumination plane is independent of that angle and of the Doppler angle, thereby improving the accuracy and flexibility of that technique. We validate our approach with an in vitro experiment and in vivo measurements of a human retinal vessel and discuss the practical limitations of this approach. The method yields accurate flow values for most vascular plexuses without precise knowledge of the vessel orientation. The precision gradually decreases for larger en face angles.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(170.4460) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(170.4470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmology
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(280.2490) Remote sensing and sensors : Flow diagnostics
(170.2655) Medical optics and biotechnology : Functional monitoring and imaging

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: August 6, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 6, 2013
Published: October 30, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Cedric Blatter, Branislav Grajciar, Leopold Schmetterer, and Rainer A. Leitgeb, "Angle independent flow assessment with bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 38, 4433-4436 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. A. Leitgeb, in Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, P. W. Hawkes, ed., Optics of Charged Particle Analyzers (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 168, Chap. 3.
  2. R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, Opt. Lett. 33, 836 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064003 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, Opt. Express 18, 2477 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. Kraus, J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. Cable, J. Duker, and J. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1539 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Schmoll and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biophotonics 6, 275 (2013). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Choi, B. Baumann, J. Liu, A. Clermont, E. Feener, J. Duker, and J. Fujimoto, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1047 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, Opt. Lett. 33, 2967 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 6062 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Blatter, S. Coquoz, B. Grajciar, A. Singh, M. Bonesi, R. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and R. Leitgeb, Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1188 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Singh, C. Kolbitsch, T. Schmoll, and R. Leitgeb, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1047 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Bernary, Appl. Opt. 18, 2301 (1979). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, Opt. Lett. 33, 1425 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. Leitgeb, Opt. Express 17, 4166 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited