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Optics Letters

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  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 38, Iss. 22 — Nov. 15, 2013
  • pp: 4698–4700

Photocurrent limit in nanowires

Bruno Ullrich and Haowen Xi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 22, pp. 4698-4700 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.004698


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Abstract

Square root photocurrent dependences of nanowires on light intensity were reported in the literature without clarification of the limiting effect. In this Letter, we derived a relation excellently fitting the observed nonlinearities and, intensifying the significance of the result, we demonstrated that the fit parameters involved can be employed to determine the impurity concentration and electronic response time of nano-sized semiconductors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5140) Materials : Photoconductive materials
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: August 14, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 26, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2013
Published: November 11, 2013

Citation
Bruno Ullrich and Haowen Xi, "Photocurrent limit in nanowires," Opt. Lett. 38, 4698-4700 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-38-22-4698


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References

  1. C. Bouchenaki, B. Ullrich, J. P. Zielinger, H. N. Cong, and P. Chartier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 691 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. K. P. Acharya and B. Ullrich, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900Q (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. T. S. Moss, Photoconductivity in the Elements (Academic, 1952).
  4. T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semi-Conductors (Academic, 1959).
  5. R. Graham, C. Miller, E. Oh, and D. Yu, Nano Lett., 11, 717 (2011).
  6. H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, Adv. Mat. 14, 158 (2002).
  7. Space-charge limited photocurrent scales with Iin3/4; see V. D. Mihailetchi, J. Wildeman, and P. W. M. Blom, Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 126602 (2005), and references therein.
  8. H. Pick, Ann. Phys. 438, 255 (1948). [CrossRef]
  9. It was shown in Ref. [3] that Eq. (1) holds for n- and p-type semiconductors (in the original work called excess conductor and defect conductor); i.e., M refers to the density of either ionized donors or acceptors.
  10. R. N. Hall, Proc. IEE—Part B 106, 923 (1959).
  11. The PbS nanowires referred to in this work are not greatly influenced by surface trap states; see Ref. [5], and the follow-up work by Y. Yang, J. Li, H. Wu, E. Oh, and D. Yu, Nano Lett.12, 5890 (2012). Therefore, the M value found is a fair measure of the impurity concentration.
  12. When the IPC data are plotted versus the incident laser power, as in Fig. 3, the slope parameter σ becomes α/(AhνinBM2) with the unit 1/W. The symbol A stands for the area of the laser spot.
  13. In Ref. [6] no information was provided about the impurity concentration in the sample. We noticed, however, that the reported M∼6×1017  cm−3 for ZnO nanowires by H. Oh, J.-J. Kim, J.-O. Lee, and S. S. Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc.58, 291 (2011), is in good agreement with our fit result. We stress, however, that we do not have specifics about the presence of surface traps in the samples used in Ref. [6], and, therefore, the actual M number can differ from our finding.
  14. M. D. Tabak and P. J. Warter, Phys. Rev. 148, 982 (1966). [CrossRef]
  15. B. Ullrich and H. Xi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3910 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bleicher, Halbleiter-Optoelektronik (Huethig, 1985).
  17. Z. R. Khan, M. S. Khan, M. Zulfequar, and M. S. Khan, Mat. Sci. Appl. 2, 340 (2011).

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