OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Xi-Cheng Zhang
  • Vol. 39, Iss. 10 — May. 15, 2014
  • pp: 3010–3013

Three-dimensional printing of tissue phantoms for biophotonic imaging

Jianting Wang, James Coburn, Chia-Pin Liang, Nicholas Woolsey, Jessica C. Ramella-Roman, Yu Chen, and T. Joshua Pfefer  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 10, pp. 3010-3013 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (457 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have investigated the potential of tissue phantoms fabricated with thermosoftening- and photopolymerization-based three-dimensional (3D) printers for use in evaluation of biophotonic imaging systems. The optical properties of printed polymer samples were measured and compared to biological tissues. Phantoms with subsurface channels as small as 0.2 mm in diameter were fabricated and imaged with microscopy, x-ray microtomography, and optical coherence tomography to characterize morphology. These phantoms were then implemented to evaluate the penetration depth of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system used in conjunction with a near-infrared contrast agent. Results indicated that 3D printing may provide a suitable platform for performance testing in biophotonics, although subsurface imaging is critical to mitigate printer-to-printer variability in matrix homogeneity and feature microstructure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4800) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical standards and testing
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media
(110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: January 29, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 7, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 13, 2014
Published: May 14, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Jianting Wang, James Coburn, Chia-Pin Liang, Nicholas Woolsey, Jessica C. Ramella-Roman, Yu Chen, and T. Joshua Pfefer, "Three-dimensional printing of tissue phantoms for biophotonic imaging," Opt. Lett. 39, 3010-3013 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012). [CrossRef]
  2. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, H. Kandimalla, A. Nabili, D. D. Duncan, S. A. D’Anna, S. M. Shah, and Q. D. Nguyen, Opt. Express 16, 6170 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Long, T. King, T. Akl, M. N. Ericson, M. Wilson, G. L. Cote, and M. J. McShane, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1877 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. V. Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, Int. J. CARS 5, 335 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Burfeindt, T. J. Colgan, R. O. Mays, J. D. Shea, N. Behdad, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 11, 1610 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Peltola, F. P. W. Melchels, D. W. Grijpma, and M. Kellomäki, Ann. Med. 40, 268 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nguyen, H. Le, M. Vo, Z. Wang, L. Luu, and J. Ramella-Roman, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1200 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. A.-K. Carton, P. Bakic, C. Ullberg, H. Derand, and A. D. A. Maidment, Med. Phys. 38, 891 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, Appl. Opt. 32, 559 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 943 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yaroslavsky, P. Schulze, I. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. Schwarzmaier, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. A. T. Luk, Y. Lin, B. Grimmond, A. Sood, E. E. Uzgiris, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Proc. SPIE 8574, 85740K (2013). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Keshava, Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 55 (2003).
  17. D. A. Zopf, S. J. Hollister, M. E. Nelson, R. G. Ohye, and G. E. Green, N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 2043 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited