OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Xi-Cheng Zhang
  • Vol. 39, Iss. 14 — Jul. 15, 2014
  • pp: 4156–4159

Lp regularization for early gate fluorescence molecular tomography

Lingling Zhao, He Yang, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang, and Xavier Intes  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 14, pp. 4156-4159 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (387 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Time domain fluorescence molecular tomography (TD-FMT) provides a unique dataset for enhanced quantification and spatial resolution. The time-gate dataset can be divided into two temporal groups around the maximum counts gate, which are early gates and late gates. It is well established that early gates allow for improved spatial resolution and late gates are essential for fluorophore unmixing and concentration quantification. However, the inverse problem of FMT is ill-posed and typically underdetermined, which makes image reconstruction highly susceptible to data noise. More specifically, photon counts are inherently very low at early gates due to high absorption and scattering of tissue, resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio and unstable reconstructions. In this work, an Lp regularization-based reconstruction algorithm was developed and tested with our wide-field mesh-based Monte Carlo simulation strategy. We compared the early time-gate reconstructions obtained with the different p (p{1/16,1/8,1/4,1/3,1/2,1,2}) from a synthetic murine model simulating the fluorophore uptake in the kidneys and preclinical data. The results from a 3D mouse atlas and a mouse experiment show that our L1/4 regularization methods give the best performance for early time gates reconstructions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.3010) Medical optics and biotechnology : Image reconstruction techniques
(170.3650) Medical optics and biotechnology : Lifetime-based sensing
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
(170.6960) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tomography
(070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: March 31, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 29, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 31, 2014
Published: July 9, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Lingling Zhao, He Yang, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang, and Xavier Intes, "Lp regularization for early gate fluorescence molecular tomography," Opt. Lett. 39, 4156-4159 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdes, and B. W. Pogue, Photochem. Photobiol. B 98, 77 (2010).
  3. C. Darne, Y. Lu, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Phys. Med. Biol. 59, R1 (2014). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, Chem. Rev. 110, 2641 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, Opt. Lett. 33, 470 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 871 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chen and X. Intes, Opt. Express 17, 19566 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. V. Y. Soloviev, K. B. Tahir, J. McGinty, D. S. Elson, M. A. Neil, P. M. French, and S. R. Arridge, Appl. Opt. 46, 7384 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. W. Mo, D. Rohrbach, and U. Sunar, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 071306 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Venugopal, J. Chen, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, Opt. Lett. 35, 3189 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wu, L. Perelman, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8783 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Niedre and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 35, 369 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Venugopal, J. Chen, and X. Intes, Proc. SPIE 8578, 857827 (2013). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, and A. Gibson, Philos. Transact. Ser. A. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 367, 3073 (2009).
  15. H. Egger and M. Schlottbom, SIAM J. Math. Anal. 42, 1934 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Suzen, A. Giannoula, and T. Durduran, Opt. Express 18, 23676 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Okawa, Y. Hoshi, and Y. Yamada, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3334 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. V. C. Kavuri, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, and H. Liu, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 943 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Yi, D. Chen, W. Li, S. Zhu, X. Wang, J. Liang, and J. Tian, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 56013 (2013). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Chen, Q. Fang, and X. Intes, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 106009 (2012).
  21. J. Chen and X. Intes, Med. Phys. 38, 5788 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Xu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Chang, and Y. Liang, Sci. China Inf. Sci. 53, 1159 (2010).
  23. A. Beck and M. Teboulle, SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 2, 183 (2009).
  24. V. Venugopal, J. Chen, and X. Intes, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 143 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Pimpalkhare, J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, Int. J. Biomed. Imag. 2012, 942326 (2012).
  26. V. Venugopal, J. Chen, M. Barroso, and X. Intes, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 3161 (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. K. Abe, L. Zhao, A. Periasamy, X. Intes, and M. Barroso, PLoS One 8, e80269 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited