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Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Editor: Xi-Cheng Zhang
  • Vol. 39, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 2014
  • pp: 1693–1696

Tensor of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in asymmetrically strained silicon waveguides: analysis and experimental validation

Matthew W. Puckett, Joseph S. T. Smalley, Maxim Abashin, Andrew Grieco, and Yeshaiahu Fainman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 6, pp. 1693-1696 (2014)

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We theoretically consider the existence of multiple nonzero components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, χ(2), generated via strain-induced symmetry breaking in crystalline silicon. We determine that, in addition to the previously reported χxxy(2) component, the χyyy(2) component also becomes nonzero based on the remaining symmetry present in the strained material. In order to characterize these two nonlinearities, we fabricate Fabry–Perot waveguide resonators on 250 nm thick silicon-on-insulator wafers clad with 180 nm of compressively stressed (1.275GPa) silicon nitride. We measure the shifts in these devices’ modal effective indices in response to several bias electric fields and calculate the χeff,xxy(2) and χeff,yyy(2) nonlinear susceptibility tensor elements induced by the breaking of the guiding material’s inversion symmetry. Through the incorporation of finite element simulations encompassing the theoretical distribution of strain, the applied bias field, and the optical modes supported by the waveguide geometry, we extract two phenomenological scaling coefficients which relate the induced optical nonlinearities to the local strain gradient.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: January 14, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 11, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 11, 2014
Published: March 14, 2014

Matthew W. Puckett, Joseph S. T. Smalley, Maxim Abashin, Andrew Grieco, and Yeshaiahu Fainman, "Tensor of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in asymmetrically strained silicon waveguides: analysis and experimental validation," Opt. Lett. 39, 1693-1696 (2014)

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