OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters

| RAPID, SHORT PUBLICATIONS ON THE LATEST IN OPTICAL DISCOVERIES

  • Editor: Xi-Cheng Zhang
  • Vol. 39, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 2014
  • pp: 1693–1696

Tensor of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in asymmetrically strained silicon waveguides: analysis and experimental validation

Matthew W. Puckett, Joseph S. T. Smalley, Maxim Abashin, Andrew Grieco, and Yeshaiahu Fainman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 6, pp. 1693-1696 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.001693


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (416 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We theoretically consider the existence of multiple nonzero components of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, χ(2), generated via strain-induced symmetry breaking in crystalline silicon. We determine that, in addition to the previously reported χxxy(2) component, the χyyy(2) component also becomes nonzero based on the remaining symmetry present in the strained material. In order to characterize these two nonlinearities, we fabricate Fabry–Perot waveguide resonators on 250 nm thick silicon-on-insulator wafers clad with 180 nm of compressively stressed (1.275GPa) silicon nitride. We measure the shifts in these devices’ modal effective indices in response to several bias electric fields and calculate the χeff,xxy(2) and χeff,yyy(2) nonlinear susceptibility tensor elements induced by the breaking of the guiding material’s inversion symmetry. Through the incorporation of finite element simulations encompassing the theoretical distribution of strain, the applied bias field, and the optical modes supported by the waveguide geometry, we extract two phenomenological scaling coefficients which relate the induced optical nonlinearities to the local strain gradient.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 14, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 11, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 11, 2014
Published: March 14, 2014

Citation
Matthew W. Puckett, Joseph S. T. Smalley, Maxim Abashin, Andrew Grieco, and Yeshaiahu Fainman, "Tensor of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in asymmetrically strained silicon waveguides: analysis and experimental validation," Opt. Lett. 39, 1693-1696 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-39-6-1693


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. G. Li and P. Yu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2010 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 22484 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 18, 3059 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jacobsen, K. Andersen, P. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, Nature 441, 199 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, Nat. Mater. 11, 148 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. I. Avrutsky and R. Soref, Opt. Express 19, 21707 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrin, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, Opt. Express 19, 17212 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Chmielak, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, and H. Kurz, Opt. Express 21, 25324 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Hon, K. Tsia, D. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. Khurgin, Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2009).
  11. A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Characterization of waveguide loss using distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-013-5543-x (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Sharipov, “Quick introduction to tensor analysis,” arXiv preprint math/0403252 (2004).
  13. M. Huang, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 1615 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited