A simple but rigorous analysis of the important sources of noise in homodyne detection is presented. Output noise and signal-to-noise ratios are compared for direct detection, conventional (one-port) homodyning, and two-port homodyning, in which one monitors both output ports of a 50–50 beam splitter. It is shown that two-port homodyning is insensitive to local-oscillator quadrature-phase noise and hence provides (1) a means of detecting reduced quadrature-phase fluctuations (squeezing) that is perhaps more practical than one-port homodyning and (2) an output signal-to-noise ratio that can be a modest to significant improvement over that of one-port homodyning and direct detection.
© 1984 Optical Society of America
Bonny L. Schumaker, "Noise in homodyne detection," Opt. Lett. 9, 189-191 (1984)