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  • Editor: Alan E. Willner
  • Vol. 38, Iss. 19 — Oct. 1, 2013
  • pp: 3720–3723
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Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

M. Z. M. Khan, M. A. Majid, T. K. Ng, D. Cha, and B. S. Ooi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 19, pp. 3720-3723 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.003720


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Abstract

We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of >700nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Ultrabroad and continuous spectrum generation, or supercontinuum generation, is an interesting physical phenomenon and an attractive technology for many applications in optics fiber communications, spectroscopy and sensing, metrology, and imaging [1

1. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, Nature 415, 883 (2002). [CrossRef]

,2

2. B. S. Ooi, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. C. M. Hwang, X. M. Fang, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1230 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. To date, most commercial ultrabroadband sources are based on nonlinear optical transformations of ultrashort laser pulses and photonic crystal fiber based approaches, which often involve an expensive and bulky high-power laser as pump source, and utilize complex filtering systems [3

3. A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, and M. Preusser, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235 (2004). [CrossRef]

,4

4. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. M. Man, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. For many practical applications, a compact, efficient, and cost-effective broadband device is preferred. In this respect, GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor light emitters have attracted significant attention in the past decade due to their interband transition operation of quantum confined heterostructure at near-infrared region, which facilitated them being a viable platform, inheriting a majority of the above characteristics. Devices in the form of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) [5

5. H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1747 (2006). [CrossRef]

7

7. Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, X. Q. Lv, and Z. G. Wang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 201 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and laser diodes [8

8. H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, X. M. Fang, Y. Wu, J. M. Fastenau, W. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, Opt. Lett. 32, 44 (2007). [CrossRef]

11

11. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, U. Schwingenschlogl, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 608 (2012). [CrossRef]

] encompassing the natural large size inhomogeneity of the self-assembled quantum dots (Qdots)/Qdashes have been demonstrated to inherit broad gain spectra, which fundamentally defines the emission bandwidth. Wideband emission from SLDs utilizing a different configuration, for instance, chirping the energy levels of the multistack layers in the active region, single- and multisection device intermixing techniques, has already been reported, with maximum spectral bandwidth in the range of 200–300 nm [7

7. Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, X. Q. Lv, and Z. G. Wang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 201 (2010). [CrossRef]

,12

12. S. Haffouz, P. Barrios, R. Normandin, D. Poitras, and Z. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 1103 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, a hybrid platform utilizing Qwells–Qdots in the active region of the SLD was proposed and demonstrated with an emission bandwidth 210nm and pulsed output power of 1.0mW [13

13. S. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Zhang, J. Orahcrd, D. Childs, M. Hugues, O. Wada, and R. Hogg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900209 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. However, the emission range covers only the O-E communication bands.

In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of combining emission from Qwells and Qdashes in the dash-in-a-well active region, of a p-i-n SLD, in realizing an extraordinary emission bandwidth of >700nm at high injections. Through chirping the multistack InAs/InP Qdash structure by varying the AlGaInAs barrier layers thickness, a wavelength coverage of 1.351.75μm (E to U bands) by Qdashes, and 1.201.35μm (O band) by Qwells, leads to the realization of >900nm spectral width or coverage (30dB bandwidth). An output power of 1.3 mW is demonstrated from this device structure under continuous wave (CW) operation at room temperature. Our results further validate the coexistence of Qwells and Qdashes in a dash-in-a-well heterostructure, and may direct to an entirely different active region platform for realizing ultrabroad emission devices by optimized bandgap engineering.

The chirped device structure (CDS) was grown on a (100) oriented n-type S-doped InP substrate with the active region being a dash-in-an-asymmetric-well structure consisting of four stacks of InAs dashes embedded in Qwells. Each of the five-monolayers-thick InAs dash layers is sandwiched within a 7.6 nm thick compressively strained In0.64Ga0.16Al0.2As asymmetric Qwell separated by varying thickness (20, 15, 10, and 10 nm) tensile-strained In0.50Ga0.32Al0.18As top barriers, starting from a 25 nm thick bottom barrier. More details of the structure can be found from [10

10. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, C.-S. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, a partial four-stack Qwell (7.6 nm thickness) equivalent structure (QWS) was also grown with identical epitaxy to the chirped structure but without the Qdash layers to identify the emission peak. A 50 μm oxide-strip broad area SLD was fabricated using the standard laser fabrication process and the partial suppression of Fabry–Perot resonances in the optical path is achieved via the integration of a photon absorber (PA) section to a 1.0 mm long pump (gain section) section [5

5. H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1747 (2006). [CrossRef]

,6

6. H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B.-S. Ooi, J. C. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 251 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. For absorption measurements, 3μm×1000μm ridge-waveguide multisection devices were fabricated with 10 μm isolation between each section [14

14. Y.-C. Xin, Y. Li, A. Martinez, T. J. Rotter, H. Su, L. Zhang, A. L. Gray, S. Luong, K. Sun, Z. Zou, J. Zilko, P. M. Varangis, and L. F. Lester, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 725 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The nonfacet-coated SLD devices were tested on a brass heat sink using a thermoelectric cooler operated at 20°C, under CW operation, by pumping only the gain section while the PA section was left unpumped.

Figure 1(a) shows the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) output spectrum of our chirped 50μm×1000μm Qdash SLD device under CW operation. Increasing the current injection density (J) resulted in widening of the spectral bandwidth [measured at full width at half-maximum (FWHM)] and the wavelength coverage. At a drive current density of J=2.0kA/cm2, a bandwidth of >135nm is achieved, centered at 1.61μm. The corresponding spectrum ripple over 10 nm spans from the central wavelength is <0.2dB, as shown in the inset of Fig. 1(a). A maximum output power of >0.35mW is achieved at this particular current injection, as illustrated in Fig. 1(b). A visible superlinear L-I curve [left inset of Fig. 1(b)] depicts the transition from the spontaneous emission to the ASE regime. All these characteristics, in addition to no sharp thermal roll-over of the L-I curve, make this device a very attractive broadband emitter. Furthermore, we were able to achieve a maximum power of 1.3mW from 4μm×2500μm SLD [shown in the right inset of Fig. 1(b)] with a single-pass amplification of spontaneous emission, and similar ultrabroad emission spectrum profile but at comparatively larger injection current density values. The increase in the power value by a factor of four highlights the capability of our bandgap engineered active region. It is noteworthy to mention that these power values correspond to our no-coated single facet results, which could further be increased by various techniques, for instance, facet coatings (antireflection coating), utilizing longer tapered and multisection devices [15

15. M. A. Majid, M. Hugues, S. Vezian, and R. Hogg, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2066 (2012). [CrossRef]

], semiconductor optical amplifier in tandem with the SLD devices [16

16. X. Li, P. Jin, Q. An, Z. Wang, X. Lv, H. Wei, J. Wu, J. Wu, and Z. Wang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1 (2011).

]. The effect of increasing the injection current on the emission bandwidth and the central emission wavelength (calculated by identifying the central wavelength at the FWHM) is shown in Fig. 1(c). We noted an extraordinary broad wavelength coverage of >900nm from our device at J=2.0kA/cm2, a direct effect of chirping the active layer which leads to enhanced inhomogeneous broadening. The spectra shows three visible emission humps [marked by dashed lines in Fig. 1(a)] at 1.22, 1.41, and 1.61μm, dictating the existence of three dominant energy groups in the active region. We attribute these humps to the emissions originating from the Qwells, short- and large-average dash height ensembles, respectively, as illustrated in an energy band model sketch in Fig. 2. We postulate that the 10 and 15 nm Qdash stacks work collectively under the CW operation, because of a possible carrier tunneling process among themselves [17

17. P. Miska, J. Even, C. Paranthoen, O. Dehaese, A. Jbeli, M. Senes, and X. Marie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111905 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and emit at longer wavelengths because of their large-average dash height (LD), a result of the pronounced effect of vertical strain on the dash formation. The other dash group corresponds to the 20 nm barrier thickness overgrown Qdash layer with short-average dash height (SD). We have discussed the characteristic of this chirped structure in a greater detail elsewhere [10

10. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, C.-S. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. (a) Room temperature CW emission spectra of the fabricated 50μm×1000μm chirped Qdash SLD device at different injection current density. The inset shows the spectra ripple within 10 nm from the central wavelength, at 2.0kA/cm2. (b) The corresponding L-I characteristics, and (c) change in the emission bandwidth and the central emission wavelength with increasing injection current density. The left inset of (b) shows the zoomed L-I curve at low injection while the right inset shows the L-I characteristics of a 4μm×2500μm SLD device, measured at room temperature under CW operation. A huge emission wavelength coverage of >900nm at 2.0kA/cm2, and bandwidth exceeding >700nm at 5.6kA/cm2, is observed [shown as an open symbol in the L-I curve of (b)]. The lines are guide to the eyes showing collective emission from various energy levels of the active region responsible for this observation.
Fig. 2. Energy band model sketch of the chirped Qdash SLD showing the dominant emissions from Qwell (QW), long (LD)- and short (SD)-dash assemblies, at (a) low, (b) moderate, and (c) high current injection density. Orange, blue, and olive colors correspond to the available states while red, cyan, and green correspond to the occupied states that are recombining in the system, for the Qwell, long- and short-dash ensembles, respectively.

In order to confirm our attribution of the emission wavelength humps to different quantum-confined nanostructures in the active region, we carried out the photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements. Figure 3(a) plots the PL from the CDS and QWS samples at different excitation power densities, taken at 77 K. In addition, we also show the 77 K emission spectra of the SLD at J=3.0kA/cm2 in the same figure. The PL peak wavelengths of the CDS and QWS sample at low (1.5W/cm2) and high (3.0kW/cm2) excitation power densities, agree well with the short (Qwell) and long (LD ensemble) wavelength emission humps, attaining values 1.17μm and 1.52μm, respectively. The weak emission at 1.36μm overlaps with the CDS sample’s short wavelength PL emission region, at high excitation power density of 3.0kW/cm2, further substantiating the emission being contributed by the SD dashes. For additional details on PL analysis, the readers are referred to [10

10. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, C.-S. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. In another experiment, we performed the absorption measurements of the CDS sample at room temperature utilizing the multisection ridge-waveguide device and compared with the SLD ASE spectra in Fig. 3(b). Three absorption peaks are apparent from the absorption curve, at high injection. While the two long wavelength peaks persist even at low injection, the short wavelength peak was only visible at high injections (J>5.0kA/cm2). The peaks agree well with the room temperature emission humps of the SLD ASE spectra, further confirming the role of Qwells and Qdashes (SD and LD assemblies) in achieving an ultrawide emission bandwidth. Note that the peak loss value of the LD groups is far larger than the SD group (>by13cm1) compared to Qwells (>by8cm1), suggesting that the SD group’s gain is probably limited. Moreover, observation and competing absorption peak loss from Qwells suggests that the current feeding via optical pumping mechanism is only possible at high injection currents, which is exactly what has been observed in our SLD analysis. Therefore, our results call for a possible optimization of the gain medium (properly bandgap engineering), perhaps dual 20 nm barrier thickness dash stacks can be utilized, in addition to an optimized design of the Qwell heights. Through monolithic integration of different bandgap gain sections using multisection device intermixing [19

19. B. S. Ooi, K. McIlvaney, M. W. Street, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, and J. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1784 (1997). [CrossRef]

], the emission coverage could further be increased. Moreover, a hybrid Qwell and Qdash structure seems to be an attractive candidate for the same, recently reported with Qdot active medium [13

13. S. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Zhang, J. Orahcrd, D. Childs, M. Hugues, O. Wada, and R. Hogg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900209 (2013). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 3. (a) Comparison of the 77 K PL spectra of the QWS and CDS samples with the ASE spectrum of the chirped Qdash SLD, at 77 K. The excitation power density value of the PL samples and the injection current density of the SLD are shown in (a). (b) Comparison of the absorption spectra with the ASE spectrum of the chirped Qdash SLD, at room temperature (RT). The injection current densities of the absorption spectra and the Qdash SLD ASE spectrum are shown in (b).

In conclusion, we demonstrated the coexistence of Qwells and Qdashes in the dash-in-a-well-chirped InAs/InP SLD structure. The spectral coverage (emission bandwidth) is extended to >900nm (>700nm) due exclusively to the collective emission from the Qwells and Qdashes, thus covering the entire O to U communication band. This demonstration shows the feasibility of attaining such a wide emission bandwidth from a compact and single semiconductor device.

The work was supported by KAUST’s Competitive Research Grant CRG-1-2012-OOI-010.

References

1.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, Nature 415, 883 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

B. S. Ooi, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. C. M. Hwang, X. M. Fang, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1230 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, and M. Preusser, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. M. Man, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1747 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B.-S. Ooi, J. C. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 251 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, X. Q. Lv, and Z. G. Wang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 201 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, X. M. Fang, Y. Wu, J. M. Fastenau, W. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, Opt. Lett. 32, 44 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

H. S. Djie, C. L. Tan, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, X. M. Fang, Y. Wu, J. M. Fastenau, W. K. Liu, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111116 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, C.-S. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, U. Schwingenschlogl, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 608 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Haffouz, P. Barrios, R. Normandin, D. Poitras, and Z. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 1103 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Zhang, J. Orahcrd, D. Childs, M. Hugues, O. Wada, and R. Hogg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900209 (2013). [CrossRef]

14.

Y.-C. Xin, Y. Li, A. Martinez, T. J. Rotter, H. Su, L. Zhang, A. L. Gray, S. Luong, K. Sun, Z. Zou, J. Zilko, P. M. Varangis, and L. F. Lester, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 725 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

M. A. Majid, M. Hugues, S. Vezian, and R. Hogg, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2066 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

X. Li, P. Jin, Q. An, Z. Wang, X. Lv, H. Wei, J. Wu, J. Wu, and Z. Wang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1 (2011).

17.

P. Miska, J. Even, C. Paranthoen, O. Dehaese, A. Jbeli, M. Senes, and X. Marie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111905 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

C. L. Tan, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. E. Dimas, V. Hongpinyo, Y. H. Ding, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 30 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

B. S. Ooi, K. McIlvaney, M. W. Street, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, and J. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1784 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: July 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 20, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2013
Published: September 17, 2013

Citation
M. Z. M. Khan, M. A. Majid, T. K. Ng, D. Cha, and B. S. Ooi, "Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm," Opt. Lett. 38, 3720-3723 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-38-19-3720


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References

  1. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, Nature 415, 883 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. B. S. Ooi, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. L. Tan, J. C. M. Hwang, X. M. Fang, J. M. Fastenau, A. W. K. Liu, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1230 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Seefeld, R. Menzel, and M. Preusser, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1235 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. M. Man, and P. S. J. Russell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2148 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1747 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B.-S. Ooi, J. C. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 251 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, X. Q. Lv, and Z. G. Wang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 201 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. H. S. Djie, B. S. Ooi, X. M. Fang, Y. Wu, J. M. Fastenau, W. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, Opt. Lett. 32, 44 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Djie, C. L. Tan, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, X. M. Fang, Y. Wu, J. M. Fastenau, W. K. Liu, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111116 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, C.-S. Lee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, U. Schwingenschlogl, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 608 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Haffouz, P. Barrios, R. Normandin, D. Poitras, and Z. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 1103 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Zhang, J. Orahcrd, D. Childs, M. Hugues, O. Wada, and R. Hogg, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1900209 (2013). [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-C. Xin, Y. Li, A. Martinez, T. J. Rotter, H. Su, L. Zhang, A. L. Gray, S. Luong, K. Sun, Z. Zou, J. Zilko, P. M. Varangis, and L. F. Lester, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 725 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Majid, M. Hugues, S. Vezian, and R. Hogg, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2066 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Li, P. Jin, Q. An, Z. Wang, X. Lv, H. Wei, J. Wu, J. Wu, and Z. Wang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1 (2011).
  17. P. Miska, J. Even, C. Paranthoen, O. Dehaese, A. Jbeli, M. Senes, and X. Marie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111905 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. C. L. Tan, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. E. Dimas, V. Hongpinyo, Y. H. Ding, and B. S. Ooi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 30 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Ooi, K. McIlvaney, M. W. Street, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, and J. Roberts, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1784 (1997). [CrossRef]

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