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July


Ultrafast photocarrier dynamics in nanocrystalline ZnOxNy thin films

  • Taeho Shin, Eunha Lee, Soohwan Sul, Hyungik Lee, Dong-Su Ko, Anass Benayad, Hyun-Suk Kim, and Gyeong-Su Park
  • received 05/29/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 213059
  • [full text: PDF (863) KB)]
  • Abstract: We examined the ultrafast dynamics of photocarriers in nanocrystalline ZnOxNy thin films as a function of compositional variation, using femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy. The relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers as well as electronic structures are strongly dependent on the nitrogen concentration. Photocarriers of ZnOxNy films relax on two different timescales. Ultrafast relaxation over several picoseconds is observed for all chemical compositions. However, ZnO and oxygen-rich phases show slow relaxation, longer than several nanoseconds, whereas photocarriers of the films with high nitrogen concentrations relax completely on sub-nanosecond timescales. These relaxation features may provide a persistent-photocurrent-free and prompt photoresponsivity for ZnOxNy with high nitrogen concentrations, as opposed to ZnO for display applications.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (300.6530) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultrafast
  • (310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
  • (160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

Buffer reservoir approach for resonant noises cancellation in lasers

  • Mehdi Alouini, Abdelkrim El Amili, Goulc'hen Loas, and Lucien Pouget
  • received 04/16/2014; accepted 07/23/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 210219
  • [full text: PDF (495) KB)]
  • Abstract: The introduction in a laser system of a buffer reservoir mechanism with optimized time-constant and cross-section enables breaking any resonant exchange between the population inversion and photon population over an extremely wide bandwidth. The associated noise cancellation, including the excess noise at relaxation oscillations and spontaneous-signal beating, is experimentally evidenced up to 16 GHz in an Er,Yb laser comprising a GaAs two-photon absorber. Such approach is shown to preserve the laser linewidth quality and is advantageously implemented for optical distribution of frequency references.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3500) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, erbium
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization
  • (060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

Determination of dynamical parameters in liquids by Homodyne Transient Grating spectroscopy at large angles

  • Riccardo Cucini, Andrea Battistoni, Alessandro Gessini, Filippo Bencivenga, Emiliano Principi, Makina Saito, Francesco D'Amico, Rudi Sergo, and Claudio Masciovecchio
  • received 04/24/2014; accepted 07/23/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 210725
  • [full text: PDF (612) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the possibility of extracting fast dynamical relaxation times from homodyne Transient Grating measurements. We demonstrate the validity of our approach by experimental measurements on liquid Acetonitrile and by comparison with literature. This approach would be of tremendous help in the case of Free Electron Laser based Transient Grating experiments due to the overcoming of technical difficulties, like heterodyning and large angle geometries.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.2920) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Homodyning
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (290.5910) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Raman
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization

Fine-tuned grayscale optofluidic maskless lithography for three-dimensional freeform shape microstructure fabrication

  • Wook Park, Suk-Heung Song, Kibum Kim, Sung-Eun Choi, Sangkwon Han, Ho-Suk Lee, and Sunghoon Kwon
  • received 06/13/2014; accepted 07/23/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 213933
  • [full text: PDF (1759) KB)]
  • Abstract: This article presents free-floating three-dimensional (3D) microstructure fabrication in a microfluidic channel using direct fine-tuned grayscale image lithography. The image is designed as a freeform shape and is composed of gray shades as light-absorbing features. Gray shade levels are modulated through multiple reflections of light in a digital micromirror device (DMD) in order to produce different height formations. Whereas conventional photolithography has several limitations in producing grayscale colors on photomask features, our method focuses on a maskless, single-shot process for fabrication of freeform 3D meso- or micro-scale shapes. The fine-tuned gray image is designed using an 8-bit grayscale color; thus, each pixel is capable of displaying 256 gray shades. The pattern of the UV light reflecting on the DMD is transferred to a photocurable resin flowing through a microfluidic channel. Here, we demonstrate diverse free-floating 3D microstructure fabrication using fine-tuned grayscale image lithography. Additionally, we produce polymeric microstructures with locally embedded gray encoding patterns, such as grayscale-encoded microtags. This functional microstructure can be applied to a biophysical detection system combined with 3D microstructures. This method would be suitable for fabricating 3D microstructures that have a specific morphology in order to be used for particular biological or medical applications.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
  • (220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication

SBS slow light: Substantial optical delay in the second order Brillouin gain spectrum

  • Yu Gang Shee, Gabriel, Kok Wai Gan, Kwok Shien Yeo, Ghafour Amouzad Madhiraji, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, and Mohd Adzir Mahdi
  • received 06/23/2014; accepted 07/23/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 214516
  • [full text: PDF (494) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate optical delay in the second order Brillouin gain spectrum by incorporating a double Brillouin-frequency shifter into the system. By coinciding the seed signal with the second order Brillouin gain spectrum, it was found that the seed signal experienced significantly larger delay as compared to the Brillouin slow light generated from the first order Brillouin spectrum. At a Brillouin gain of 17 dB, the delay was found to be at maximum of 60 ns. This widens the window of promising opportunities into the deployment of all optical tunable delay into the existing optical signal processing.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Determining the topological charge of stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams with the degree of cross-polarization

  • Daomu Zhao and Meilan Luo
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 215132
  • [full text: PDF (763) KB)]
  • Abstract: By analysis of the degree of cross-polarization of a stochastic electromagnetic vortex beam, it is found that the number of bright ring dislocations of which is equal to the topological charge of the vortex beam. Based on this property, we suggest a method to access the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of vector vortex beams, which holds true for cases of high coherence or low coherence.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices

Quantitative phase contrast imaging through a scattering media

  • Rakesh Singh, Anandraj Sharma M, and Bhargab Das
  • received 05/20/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 212474
  • [full text: PDF (582) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report a new technique for the recovery of quantitative phase and amplitude information of an object hidden behind a scattering medium. Two point intensity correlation measurement together with digital holography principles are utilized for this purpose. The hologram information of the object and a reference beam is scrambled by the presence of a scattering medium in its path. A direct digital holographic recording of this scattered light does not lead to the reconstruction of actual object information. We propose the idea of recovering this hologram information from the spatially fluctuating field of a laser speckle pattern using the intensity correlation, and subsequently apply digital reconstruction of the hologram for recovery of quantitative phase and amplitude information of objects hidden by a random diffuser.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
  • (090.0090) Holography : Holography
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

Ultrafast dynamics of plasmonic field polarization via quantum coherence in quantum dot-metallic nanoshell structures

  • Seyed Sadeghi
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 214892
  • [full text: PDF (392) KB)]
  • Abstract: When a hybrid system consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle interacts with a laser field, the plasmonic field of the metallic nanoparticle can be normalized by the quantum coherence generated in the quantum dot. In this paper we study the states of polarization of such a coherent-plasmonic field and demonstrate how these states can reveal unique aspects of the collective molecular properties of the hybrid system formed via coherent exciton-plasmon coupling. We show that transition between the molecular states of this system can lead to ultra-fast polarization dynamics, including sudden reversal of the sense of variations of the plasmonic field and formation of circular and elliptical polarization.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.3900) Materials : Metals
  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (320.4240) Ultrafast optics : Nanosecond phenomena
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring

  • xiaoyong fu, Zhao Wang, Hui Wang, Yves Wang, Michael Jenkins, and Andrew Rollins
  • received 04/02/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 209336
  • [full text: PDF (1040) KB)]
  • Abstract: An all-fiber optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system is demonstrated. A novel multiplexing method was used to illuminate the sample, splitting the light from a 58.5kHz Fourier-domain mode-locked laser such that two different polarization states, alternated in time, are generated by two semiconductor optical amplifiers. A 2.3mm forward-view cone-scanning catheter probe was designed, fabricated, and used to acquire sample scattering intensity and phase retardation images. The system was first verified with a quarter-wave plate and then by obtaining intensity and phase retardation images of high-birefringence plastic, human skin in vivo, and untreated and thermally ablated porcine myocardium ex vivo. The system can potentially in vivo image of the cardiac wall to aid radio-frequency ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.5410) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Polarimetry
  • (170.2150) Medical optics and biotechnology : Endoscopic imaging
  • (170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography

All solution-processed, multilayered CuInS2/ZnS colloidal quantum dot-based electroluminescent device

  • Heesun Yang and Jong-Hoon Kim
  • received 03/10/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 207948
  • [full text: PDF (1108) KB)]
  • Abstract: While the significant progress of electroluminescent (EL) quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with respect to device processing and performance has been witnessed for last two decades exclusively relying on Cd-containing II-VI QDs, the devices based on non-Cd QDs as an active emissive layer (EML) remain still at the early stage of development. In this work, utilizing highly luminescent colloidal CuInS2 (CIS)/ZnS QDs, all solution-processed, multilayered QD-LEDs are fabricated by sequentially spin-depositing a hole transport layer of poly(9-vinlycarbazole), an EML of CIS/ZnS QDs, and an electron transport layer of ZnO nanoparticles. Our focus in device fabrication is to vary the thickness of QD EML, which is one of the primary determinants in EL performance, but has not been addressed in earlier reports. The device with an optimal EML thickness exhibits a peak luminance of 1564 cd/m2 and current efficiency of 2.52 cd/A. This record value in efficiency is higher by over 3-4 times than those of CIS QD-LEDs reported previously.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
  • (230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
  • (230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

Tunable Electro-Optic Filter based on Metal-Ferroelectric Nanocomposite for VLC

  • Shlomi Arnon and Etai Rosenkrantz
  • received 05/20/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 212486
  • [full text: PDF (399) KB)]
  • Abstract: The emerging technology of visible light communication (VLC) will provide new modality of communication. This technology uses illumination lighting to carry information. We propose to add a smart capability to mitigate interferences from unwanted light sources. This is achieved by adaptively filtering interference light using a tunable filter to block interferences dynamically. In this paper we present an innovative concept for a tunable notch filter based on ferroelectric thin-films embedded with noble metal nanoparticles. The adaptivity of the filter is achieved by controlling the external applied voltage. This voltage creates an electric field that changes the refractive index of the host film through the linear electro-optic effect. Moreover, the fundamental characteristic of the filter are determined by the layer's parameters, such as film thickness, nanoparticles concentration and geometry, and the material of both the host thin-film and nanoparticles. We study the tunability of PZT embedded with Ag nanoparticles that reaches approximately 50nm, between 530-590nm. Moreover, we showed that a PZT notch filter embedded with Ag nano-shells has its stop-band shifted to shorter wavelengths. These tunable filters can be used as mode selectors inside a laser resonator, spatial light filters for imaging and communication both for visible light communication and infrared communication.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters
  • (160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
  • (160.2260) Materials : Ferroelectrics
  • (230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (130.7408) Integrated optics : Wavelength filtering devices

Narrow-linewidth quantum cascade laser at 8.6 µm

  • Gianluca Galzerano, Eugenio Fasci, Nicola Coluccelli, Marco Cassinerio, Alessio Gambetta, Laurent Hilico, Livio Gianfrani, Paolo Laporta, and Antonio Castrillo
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 213790
  • [full text: PDF (909) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on a narrow linewidth distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser at 8.6 µm that is optical-feedback locked to a high-finesse V-shaped cavity. The spectral purity of the quantum cascade laser is fully characterized using a high-sensitivity optical frequency discriminator leading to a 1-ms linewidth less than 4 kHz and a minimum laser frequency noise spectral density as low as 0.01~Hz^2/Hz for Fourier frequencies larger than 100 kHz. The cumulative standard deviation of the laser intensity is better than 0.1% over an integration bandwidth from 2 Hz to 100 MHz.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Digital holography at light levels below noise using photon-counting approach

  • Nazif Demoli, Hrvoje Skenderovic, and Mario Stipcevic
  • received 06/09/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/22/2014; Doc. ID 213778
  • [full text: PDF (765) KB)]
  • Abstract: Recording of digital holograms of a weak signal (0.44 counts per second (cps)) hidden below the detector's noise (21 cps) is investigated by employing high dynamic range of a photon-counting detector. Recording conditions are discussed in terms of the most important holographic measures, namely the fringe visibility (or contrast) and signal-to-noise ratio, and in relation to the main holographic parameters. Theoretically evaluated curves are tested by recording holograms for a wide range of the parameter values. We found that (i) optimum set of holographic parameters can be determined for a harsh signal conditions, (ii) increasing the visibility does not necessarily improve the more important signal-to-noise ratio, and (iii) in cases of nearly constant visibility the signal-to-noise ratio clearly reveals differences in the quality of holographic recordings.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
  • (090.0090) Holography : Holography
  • (100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer created in twin-core fiber

  • Yiping Wang, Zhengyong Li, Changrui Liao, Dong Xiaopeng, Shen Liu, Kaiming Yang, Qiao Wang, and Jiangtao Zhou
  • received 05/29/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 212897
  • [full text: PDF (1222) KB)]
  • Abstract: We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a twin-core fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer to develop an ultrasensitive refractive index sensor. This fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer was constructed by splicing a short section of twin-core fiber between two sections of single mode fibers. A micro-channel was drilled through one core of the twin-core fiber by means of femtosecond laser micromachining in order to create one arm of the proposed interferometer, and the other core worked as the second arm. Such a fiber interferometer exhibits an ultrahigh refractive index sensitivity of -10981nm/RIU and a low temperature cross-sensitivity of 3.96 ×10-6 RIU/°C. Moreover, the ultra-compact device size and all-fiber configuration make it very suitable for highly sensitive refractive index sensing at precise location.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices

Photonic downconversion based on optical carrier bidirectional reusing in a phase modulator

  • Tianwei Jiang, Song Yu, qian xie, Wanyi Gu, and Jian Li
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 213324
  • [full text: PDF (422) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a novel photonic downconversion method based on optical carrier reusing. In the system, PM is placed between two narrow-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), which are designed to reflect the optical carrier and transmit the optical sidebands. The optical carrier is modulated in the PM in two directions and is not injected into the photodetector (PD). Thus, the utilization ratio of optical carrier is enhanced and the power saturation in PD is avoided. Consequently, the system gain can be improved. In addition, a 2 × 2 optical coupler is cooperated with a balance photodetector behind the two FBGs. Resulting from the subtle design of the phase difference, gain is furthermore doubled and intensity noise can be reduced simultaneously. In the experiments, 29 dB gain improvement is measured compared with the traditional dual-series intensity modulators method. Noise floor is reduced by 12.1 dB.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
  • (060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings
  • (060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

High resolution imaging and wavefront aberration correction in plenoptic systems

  • Juan Trujillo, Iciar Montilla, Luis Fernando Ramos, and José Rodríguez-Ramos
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 213857
  • [full text: PDF (1338) KB)]
  • Abstract: Plenoptic imaging systems are becoming more common since they provide capabilities unattainable in conventional imaging systems, but one of their main limitations is the poor bidimensional resolution. Combining the wavefront phase measurement and the plenoptic image deconvolution, we propose a system capable of improving the resolution when a wavefront aberration is present and the image is blurred. In this work, a plenoptic system is simulated using Fourier optics, and the results show that an improved resolution is achieved, even in presence of strong wavefront aberrations.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.1830) Image processing : Deconvolution
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (110.0115) Imaging systems : Imaging through turbulent media

Continuous wave Pr3+:BaY2F8 and Pr3+:LiYF4 lasers in the cyan-blue spectral region

  • Philip Metz, Kore Hasse, Daniela Parisi, Nils-Owe Hansen, Christian Kraenkel, Mauro Tonelli, and Guenter Huber
  • received 06/25/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 214793
  • [full text: PDF (639) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the first continuous wave quasi 3-level lasers emitting in the cyan-blue spectral range in praseodymium doped crystalline materials. Applying Pr3+:BaY2F8 as active medium, up to 201 mW of output power at 495 nm could be obtained with a slope efficiency of 27% under pumping with an optically pumped semiconductor laser (2ω-OPSL) at 480 nm. In the same pumping scheme, utilizing Pr3+:LiYF4 output powers up to 70 mW were realized at 491 nm and 500 nm, respectively. With Pr3+:BaY2F8 also diode pumped laser operation with up to 11% slope efficiency and 44 mW output power was achieved. In the latter case, detailed investigations on the temperature dependency of the laser output were conducted. Moreover, comparative experiments were carried out for the first time with green emitting Pr3+:BaY2F8 lasers at 524 nm and 553 nm both under diode and 2ω-OPSL excitation

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (140.7300) Lasers and laser optics : Visible lasers

Absorption Enhancement of Molecules in the Weak Plasmon-Exciton Coupling Regime

  • Atilla Aydinli, Ertugrul Karademir, SINAN BALCI, and Coskun Kocabas
  • received 07/04/2014; accepted 07/20/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 216389
  • [full text: PDF (940) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the experimental and theoretical investigations of enhancement of optical absorption of organic molecules in the weak plasmon-exciton coupling regime. A metal-organic hybrid structure consisting of dye molecules embedded in the polymer matrix is placed in close vicinity to thin metal films. We have observed a transition from weak-coupling regime to strong-coupling regime as the thickness of the metal layer increases. The results indicate that absorption of the self-assembled J-aggregate nanostructures can be increased in the weak plasmon-exciton coupling regime and strongly quenched in the strong-coupling regime. Theoretical model based on transfer matrix method qualitatively confirms the experimental results obtained from polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Controlling high power autofocusing waves with periodic lattices

  • Paris Panagiotopoulos, Dimitris Papazoglou, Stelios Tzortzakis, and Arnaud Couairon
  • received 06/19/2014; accepted 07/20/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 214241
  • [full text: PDF (1333) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show numerically that by using radial symmetric lattices, the focal spot characteristics and filament peak intensity of high power autofocusing waves can be controlled. The lattice induced diffraction is able to isolate the main on-axis peak and control the focus position. In addition, at higher power the lattice is able to control and stabilize the peak intensity of the filament over an extended distance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Catoptric electrodes: fully transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces

  • Pieter Kik
  • received 04/01/2014; accepted 07/20/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 209337
  • [full text: PDF (949) KB)]
  • Abstract: An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it non-resonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (310.7005) Thin films : Transparent conductive coatings

Articles 1 to 20 of 139 Next Page >>





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