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Articles 1 to 20 of 92 Next Page >>

October


Excitation of plasmon toroidal mode at optical frequencies by angle-resolved reflection

  • Jiaqi Li, Yuan Zhang, Renchao Jin, Qian-Jin Wang, Qian Chen, and Zheng-Gao Dong
  • received 08/26/2014; accepted 10/29/2014; posted 10/30/2014; Doc. ID 221763
  • [full text: PDF (935) KB)]
  • Abstract: Plasmon toroidal mode is a unique electromagnetic resonance, which can not be expanded by general electronic or magnetic multi-poles. Usually, this mode excitation needs complicated nanostructures, which is a challenge to the sample fabrication, especially for nano-designs with optical resonant frequencies. In this work, we designed a circular V-groove array and studied its toroidal-mode excitation by angle-resolved reflection experimentally and numerically. Our results show that a plasmon toroidal mode around wavelength 700 nm can be excited in this simple nanostructure for incident angles larger than 20°. Compared to reported papers, our design can realize the optical excitation of plasmon toroidal mode, which is useful in high-sensitivity plasmon sensor.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Fully tunable anomalous refraction efficiency using cross-modulation with plasmonic metasurfaces

  • Shuqi Chen, Zhaocheng Liu, Jianxiong Li, Hua Cheng, Zhancheng Li, Ji Xia, Wenwei Liu, Ping Yu, and Jian-Guo Tian
  • received 09/10/2014; accepted 10/29/2014; posted 10/30/2014; Doc. ID 222814
  • [full text: PDF (913) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a method of fully tunable anomalous refraction efficiency by introducing a cross-modulation incident light based on plasmonic metasurfaces. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the anomalous and ordinary refracted beams generated from two opposite-helicity incident beams will have a superposition for certain incident angles, and the anomalous refraction efficiency can be dynamically tuned by changing the relative phase of the incident sources. As the incident wavelength nears the resonant wavelength of the plasmonic metasurfaces, two equal-amplitude incident beams with opposite-helicity can be used to tune the anomalous refraction efficiency. Otherwise, two unequal-amplitude incident beams with opposite-helicity can be used to fully tune the anomalous refraction efficiency. This work may offer a further step in the development of tunable anomalous refraction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

Multispecies high energy DIAL emitter for CO2, CH4 and H2O monitoring in the 2 µm range

  • Myriam Raybaut, Jessica Barrientos Barria, Dominique Mammez, Erwan Cadiou, Jean-Baptiste Dherbecourt, Thomas Schmid, Alexandre Bresson, Jean-Michel Melkonian, Antoine Godard, Jacques Pelon, and Michel Lefebvre
  • received 09/18/2014; accepted 10/28/2014; posted 10/29/2014; Doc. ID 223430
  • [full text: PDF (678) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate the first emitter, based on a single optical source device, capable of addressing three species of interest (CO2, CH4 and H2O) for differential absorption lidar remote sensing of atmospheric green-house gases from space in the 2 µm region. It is based on an amplified nested cavity optical parametric oscillator. The single frequency source shows a total conversion efficiency of 37 % and covers the 2.05-2.3 µm range.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

Temporal coherence of propagating surface plasmons

  • Elizabeth Boer-Duchemin, Geneviève Comtet, Eric Le Moal, Gérald Dujardin, Serge Huant, Aurelien Drezet, and TAO WANG
  • received 09/29/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/27/2014; Doc. ID 223941
  • [full text: PDF (712) KB)]
  • Abstract: The temporal coherence of propagating surface plasmons is investigated using a local, broadband plasmon source consisting of a scanning tunneling microscope. A variant of Young's experiment is performed using a sample consisting of a 200 um-thick gold fifilm perforated by two 1-um diameter holes (separated by 4 or 6 um). The resulting interference fringes are studied as a function of hole separation and source bandwidth. From these experiments we conclude that apart from plasmon decay in the metal, there is no further loss of plasmon coherence from propagation, scattering at holes or other dephasing processes. As a result, the plasmon coherence time may be estimated from its spectral bandwidth.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

Bandwidth and repetition rate programmable Nyquist sinc-shaped pulse train source based on intensity modulators and four-wave mixing

  • Steevy CORDETTE, Armand Vedadi, Mohammad Amin Shoaie, and Camille-Sophie Bres
  • received 08/25/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/27/2014; Doc. ID 221304
  • [full text: PDF (1037) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical Nyquist sinc-shaped pulse train source based on intensity modulation and four-wave mixing. The proposed scheme allows for the tunability of the bandwidth and the full flexibility of the repetition rate in the limit of the electronic bandwidth of the modulators used through the flexible synthesis of rectangular frequency combs. Bandwidth up to 360 GHz at 40 GHz rate and up to 45 frequency lines at 5 GHz rate are demonstrated with 40 GHz modulators.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
  • (060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

Tri-channel single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser

  • Tao Wang, Junqi Liu, Fengqi Liu, lijun wang, jinchuan zhang, and Zhanguo Wang
  • received 09/10/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/27/2014; Doc. ID 222738
  • [full text: PDF (602) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on a compact THz quantum cascade laser source emitting at, individually controllable, three different wavelengths (92.6, 93.9, and 95.1 μm). This multi-wavelength laser array can be used as a prototype of the emission source of THz wavelength division multiplex (WDM) wireless communication system. The source consists of three tapered single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) terahertz quantum cascade lasers fabricated monolithically on a single chip. All array elements feature longitudinal as well as transverse single-mode at peak output powers. The peak output powers of individual lasers are 42, 73, and 37 mW at 10K, respectively.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3290) Lasers and laser optics : Laser arrays
  • (140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Ultra-fast and calibration-free temperature sensing in the intrapulse mode

  • Robin Chrystie, Aamir Farooq, and Ehson Nasir
  • received 09/22/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/27/2014; Doc. ID 223598
  • [full text: PDF (776) KB)]
  • Abstract: A simultaneously time-resolved and calibration-free sensor has been demonstrated to measure temperature at the nanosecond timescale at repetition rates of 1.0 MHz. The sensor benefits from relying on a single laser, is intuitive and straightforward to implement, and sweeps across spectral ranges in excess of 1 cm-¹. The sensor can fully resolve rovibrational features of the CO molecule, native to combustion environments, in the mid infrared range near λ = 4.85 μm at typical combustion temperatures (800-2500 K) and pressures (1-3 atm). All of this is possible through the exploitation of chirp in a quantum cascade laser, operating at a duty cycle of 50%, and by using high bandwidth (500 MHz) photodetection. Here, we showcase uncluttered, spectrally-pure Voigt profile fitting with accompanying peak SNRs of 150, resulting in a typical temperature precision of 0.9% (1σ) at an effective time-resolution of 1.0 MHz. Our sensor is applicable to other species, and can be integrated into commercial technologies.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
  • (280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors
  • (300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
  • (320.1590) Ultrafast optics : Chirping
  • (320.4240) Ultrafast optics : Nanosecond phenomena
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Micromachined Tethered Silicon Oscillator for Endomicroscopic Lissajous Fiber Scanner

  • Ki-Hun Jeong, Hyeon-Cheol Park, Yeong-Hyeon Seo, Kyungmin Hwang, Jae-kwan Lim, and Seung Zhoo Yoon
  • received 09/15/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/30/2014; Doc. ID 222870
  • [full text: PDF (1650) KB)]
  • Abstract: This work reports micromachined tethered silicon oscillators (MTSO) for endoscopic Lissajous fiber scanners. MTSO comprises an offset silicon spring for stiffness modulation of a scanning fiber and additional mass for modulation of resonant scanning frequency in one body. MTSO were assembled with a resonant fiber scanner and enhanced scanning reliability of the scanner by eliminating mechanical cross-coupling. The fiber scanner with MTSO was fully packaged as an endomicroscopic catheter and coupled with conventional laparoscope and SD-OCT system. The endomicroscope was maneuvered with the integrated laparoscope and in-vivo swine tissue OCT imaging was successfully demonstrated during the open surgery. This new component serves as an important element inside an endoscopic Lissajous fiber scanner for early cancer detection or on-demand minimum lesional margins decision during non-invasive endoscopic biopsy.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.2150) Medical optics and biotechnology : Endoscopic imaging
  • (170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
  • (170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography

Free-space carpet cloak using transformation optics and graphene

  • Hongsheng Chen, Runren Zhang, Xiao Lin, Lian Shen, Zuojia Wang, Bin Zheng, and Shisheng Lin
  • received 09/30/2014; accepted 10/27/2014; posted 10/29/2014; Doc. ID 224051
  • [full text: PDF (2110) KB)]
  • Abstract: Free-space carpet cloak designed with transformation optics requires materials exhibiting simultaneously anisotropic properties and plasma-like behaviors, but materials that meet these requirements are rarely found in nature. The recently discovered graphene has shown unique anisotropic plasma-like behavior benefitting from its natural two-dimensional structure and in-plane ultrahigh electron mobility, and therefore, can be a good candidate for the free-space carpet cloak design. In this paper, we theoretically propose a novel free-space carpet cloak by using periodically stacking layered graphene for the first time. Simulation results show object under the graphene based carpet cloak becomes invisible in the THz frequencies. By exploiting the large tunability of graphene’s conductivity, we also demonstrate the working frequency of the designed cloak is continuously tunable in a wide spectrum.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
  • (230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (230.3205) Optical devices : Invisibility cloaks

Multiline resonant filters fashioned with different periodic subwavelength gratings

  • Xumin Gao, Zheng Shi, Xin Li, Hongbo Zhu, and yongjin wang
  • received 09/24/2014; accepted 10/25/2014; posted 10/29/2014; Doc. ID 223714
  • [full text: PDF (943) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present the potential realization of multiline optical filters by the integration of different periodic gratings, which are implemented on an HfO2-on-silicon platform. Supporting arms are used to manage the relief of residual stress to obtain freestanding HfO2 gratings. The spectral properties are calculated by the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method and measured by the angular resolved micro-reflectance. Multiple symmetric double resonances occur at the normal incidence, and asymmetric double resonances that are attributed to the coexistence of guided mode resonances caused by different periodic gratings are clearly observed under the off-normal incidence. The experimental results indicate that our proposed grating structures are promising for the realization of multiline filters.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Key native fluorophores analysis of human breast cancer tissues using Gram-Schmidt subspace method

  • Yang Pu, Y. L. Yang, Laura Sordillo, and Robert Alfano
  • received 09/01/2014; accepted 10/24/2014; posted 10/29/2014; Doc. ID 222129
  • [full text: PDF (370) KB)]
  • Abstract: The native fluorescence spectra of human cancerous and normal breast tissues were excited at a selected wavelength of 300 nm to investigate the efficacy of two key building block molecules: tryptophan and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), as cancer biomarkers. The basis spectra of these key fluorophores' subspaces spanned by the corresponding emission spectra are obtained by the Gram-Schmidt method. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained in the subspace to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. This research demonstrates that the native fluorescence spectroscopy measurements are effective to detect changes of fluorophores' com¬positions in tissues due to the development of cancer.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.4580) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical diagnostics for medicine
  • (170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
  • (170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
  • (300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission
  • (300.6540) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultraviolet

Efficient yellow-green light generation at 561 nm by frequency-doubling of a QD-FBG laser in a PPLN waveguide

  • Ksenia Fedorova, Grigorii Sokolovskii, Daniil Livshits, and Edik Rafailov
  • received 09/01/2014; accepted 10/24/2014; posted 10/24/2014; Doc. ID 222071
  • [full text: PDF (415) KB)]
  • Abstract: A compact high-power yellow-green continuous wave (CW) laser source based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a 5% MgO doped periodically poled congruent lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal pumped by a quantum-dot (QD) fiber-bragg-grating (FBG) laser is demonstrated. A frequency-doubled power of 90.11 mW at the wavelength of 560.68 nm with a conversion efficiency of 52.4% is reported. This represents the highest output power and conversion efficiency achieved to date in this spectral region from a diode-pumped PPLN waveguide crystal, which could prove extremely valuable for the deployment of such source in a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
  • (230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
  • (140.3515) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, frequency doubled
  • (250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

Contrast optimization in broadband passive polarimetric imaging

  • Francois Goudail, Matthieu Boffety, and Haofeng HU
  • received 09/16/2014; accepted 10/24/2014; posted 10/30/2014; Doc. ID 223233
  • [full text: PDF (796) KB)]
  • Abstract: Polarimetric imaging is often performed using light with a narrow spectrum for the sake of polarization measurement accuracy. However, due to the use of narrowband filters, this reduces the amount of light entering the system and thus the signal to noise ratio. This may not be the best choice for target detection applications, where a high target contrast is required rather than polarimetric accuracy. We address contrast optimization for broadband passive polarimetric imaging. We show through simulation and experiments that polarimetric contrast can be significantly increased by broadening the spectrum of analyzed light. In addition, we show that the contrast can be optimized by taking into account the spectral dependence of the scene and of the polarization analysis devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (110.5405) Imaging systems : Polarimetric imaging

A novel strategy for thermometry via Tm3+ doped NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles

  • Changkui Duan, Shaoshuai Zhou, Guicheng Jiang, Xinyue Li, Sha Jiang, XianTao Wei, Yonghu Chen, and Min YIN
  • received 10/14/2014; accepted 10/23/2014; posted 10/29/2014; Doc. ID 224808
  • [full text: PDF (759) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optical thermometers usually make use of the fluorescence intensity ratio of two thermally coupled energy levels (TCELs), with the relative sensitivity constrained by the limited energy gap. Here we develop a novel strategy by using the upconversion emissions originating from two multiplets with opposite temperature dependences to achieve higher relative temperature sensitivity. We show that the intensity ratio of the two upconversion emissions, 3F2,3 and 1G4, of Tm3+ in β-NaYF4: 20% Yb3+, 0.5% Tm3+ / NaYF4: 1% Pr3+ core-shell nanoparticles under 980 nm laser excitation exhibits high relative temperature sensitivity between 350 K and 510 K, with a maximum of 1.53% K-1 at 417 K. This demonstrates the validity of the new strategy, and that the studied material has the potential for high performance optical thermometry.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
  • (300.6280) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

Characterising Conical Refraction Optical Tweezers

  • Craig McDonald, David McGloin, Craig McDougall, and Edik Rafailov
  • received 09/15/2014; accepted 10/23/2014; posted 10/24/2014; Doc. ID 222044
  • [full text: PDF (2119) KB)]
  • Abstract: Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focussing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focussing on the trap stiffness and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot but benefit from rotational control.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (260.1180) Physical optics : Crystal optics
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

UV exposure on a single-mode fiber within a multimode interference structure

  • Qiang Wu, Jinhui Yuan, Chongxiu Yu, Sang Xinzhu, Li-Peng Sun, Jie LI, Tuan Guo, Bai-Ou Guan, H. P. Chan, Kin Chiang, Youqiao Ma, Pengfei Wang, Yuliya Semenova, and Gerald Farrell
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 10/22/2014; posted 10/23/2014; Doc. ID 213273
  • [full text: PDF (499) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally study the effects of UV exposure on a single-mode fiber (SMF) with a fiber multimode interferometer (MMI) based on the singlemode-multimode-singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMSMS) fiber structure. We observe a wavelength shift of over 33 nm when irradiating the central SMF in the SMSMS fiber structure with a 3-mm width UV beam (the UV laser has a wavelength of 193 nm and pulse energy of 3 mJ). According to our numerical simulation, the SMSMS fiber structure can achieve a very high refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of 67670 nm/RIU with a very good linearity of R2  0.9999. The structure can find potential application for high sensitivity RI sensing by replacing the central SMF with a hollow-core optical fiber filled with the sample under test. The UV exposure technique can be used for tuning the characteristics of fiber MMI devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (060.3738) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity

Directional fiber-optic accelerometer based on grating inscription over fiber cladding

  • Qiangzhou Rong, Xue-Guang Qiao, Tuan Guo, Jia Bao, Dan Su, and Hang-Zhou Yang
  • received 08/25/2014; accepted 10/22/2014; posted 10/23/2014; Doc. ID 221695
  • [full text: PDF (945) KB)]
  • Abstract: An orientation-recognized fiber-optic accelerometer based on grating inscription over fiber cladding has been demonstrated. The sensor probe comprises a compact structure in which a short section of thin-core fiber (TCF) stub containing a “cladding” fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is spliced to another single-mode fiber (SMF) without any lateral offset. Femtosecond laser side-illumination technique was utilized to ensure the grating inscription regain close to the core-cladding interface of TCF. Both core mode and cladding mode of TCF are coupled at the core-mismatch junction and appear two well defined resonances in reflection from the downstream FBG, in which the cladding resonance exhibits a strong polarization and bending dependence due to the asymmetrical distribution of cladding FBG along the fiber cross section. Strong orientation dependence of vibration (acceleration) measurement has been achieved by power detection of the cladding resonance. Meanwhile, the unwanted power fluctuations and temperature perturbations can be referenced out by monitoring the fundamental core resonance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings

Wideband Perfect Coherent Absorber based on White Light Cavity

  • Jacob Scheuer and Omer Kotlicki
  • received 09/09/2014; accepted 10/22/2014; posted 10/23/2014; Doc. ID 222720
  • [full text: PDF (529) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a new concept for a broadband coherent perfect absorber (CPA), utilizing the properties of white light cavities (WLCs). The designed structure attains coherent absorption over a wide spectrum of (40nm), overcoming the single frequency limitation of conventional CPAs. A closed form analytic description is presented, supplemented by finite-difference-time-domain simulations for Si based devices, demonstrating flat, wide band power absorption. A new integrated optics based pulse absorber/terminator and optical modulator based on this devices are proposed and analyzed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
  • (230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators

Interference control of nonlinear excitation in a multiatom cavity QED system

  • Yifu Zhu, Guoqing Yang, Zheng Tan, and Bichen Zou
  • received 09/29/2014; accepted 10/21/2014; posted 10/27/2014; Doc. ID 223900
  • [full text: PDF (516) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show that by manipulating quantum interference in a multi-atom cavity QED system, the nonlinear excitation of the cavity-atom polariton can be resonantly enhanced while the linear excitation is suppressed. Under appropriate conditions, it is possible to selectively enhance or suppress the polariton excitation with two free-pace laser fields. We report an experiment with cold Rb atoms in an optical cavity and present experimental results that demonstrate such interference control of the cavity QED excitation and its direct applications for studies of all-optical switching and cross-phase modulation of the cavity transmitted light.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5580) Quantum optics : Quantum electrodynamics

Optical coherence gratings and lattices

  • Sergey Ponomarenko and Liyuan Ma
  • received 10/07/2014; accepted 10/21/2014; posted 10/24/2014; Doc. ID 224490
  • [full text: PDF (827) KB)]
  • Abstract: We introduce a class of partially coherent temporal/spatial sources, optical coherence gratings/lattices, that have a Gaussian intensity profile and statistically stationary/homogeneous, periodic temporal/spatial coherence properties. We show that temporal coherence gratings generate partially coherent pulses with periodic spectra whereas spatial coherence lattices yield far-zone output in the form of periodic lattices of highly directional beams.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (030.4070) Coherence and statistical optics : Modes
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses

Articles 1 to 20 of 92 Next Page >>





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