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April


Ultrafast all-optical modulation using a photonic-crystal Fano structure with broken symmetry

  • Yi Yu, Hao Hu, Leif Oxenlowe, Kresten Yvind, and Jesper Mork
  • received 02/12/2015; accepted 04/23/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 234224
  • [full text: PDF (1379) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast all-optical modulation using an ultra-compact InP photonic-crystal Fano structure. In contrast to symmetric configurations previously considered, the use of a structure with broken symmetry in combination with a well-engineered Fano resonance is shown to suppress patterning effects as well as lowering the energy consumption. These properties enable the achievement of error-free 10 Gbit/s modulation with low pump energy using realistic pseudo-random binary sequence patterns. At 20 Gbit/s, the bit-error-ratio remains well below the limit for forward error correction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
  • (230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
  • (050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

Coherent combination of two Tm-doped fiber amplifiers

  • Christian Gaida, Marco Kienel, Michael Müller, Arno Klenke, Martin Gebhardt, Fabian Stutzki, Cesar Jauregui, Jens Limpert, and Andreas Tünnermann
  • received 03/06/2015; accepted 04/23/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235506
  • [full text: PDF (2278) KB)]
  • Abstract: The efficient coherent combination of two ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in the 2 μm wavelength region is demonstrated. The performance of the combined amplifiers is compared to the output characteristics of a single amplifier being limited by the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. Nearly transform-limited pulses with 830 fs duration, 22 μJ pulse energy and 25 MW peak power have been achieved with a combining efficiency greater than 90%. Based on this result it can be expected that 2 μm-ultrafast-fiber-laser-systems will enter new performance realms in the near future.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (140.3298) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam combining

400 W near diffraction-limited single-frequency all-solid photonic bandgap fiber amplifier

  • Iyad Dajani, Benjamin Pulford, Thomas Ehrenreich, Roger Holten, Fanting Kong, Thomas Hawkins, and Liang Dong
  • received 03/04/2015; accepted 04/23/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235545
  • [full text: PDF (499) KB)]
  • Abstract: An ytterbium-doped large mode area photonic bandgap fiber is used to demonstrate 400 W of single-frequency output at 1064 nm with excellent beam quality and minimal stimulated Brillouin scattering. The fiber possesses all-solid microstructures embedded in the cladding and a core composed of phosphosilicate with a diameter of ~50 µm. As the signal power is pushed beyond 450 W, there is degradation in the beam quality due to the modal instability. We briefly discuss techniques to alleviate this problem in future designs. To the best of our knowledge, the 400 W single-frequency near diffraction-limited output far exceeds the current state-of-the-art from such type of fiber amplifier.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin
  • (060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers

Gain-assisted critical coupling for high-performance coherent perfect absorbers

  • Seok Ho Song, Jae Woong Yoon, and MyoungJin Jung
  • received 04/01/2015; accepted 04/23/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 237351
  • [full text: PDF (437) KB)]
  • Abstract: Critical coupling of an optical resonator is necessary for coherent perfect light absorption in many active device applications. We propose a gain-assisted method for exact access to critical coupling conditions without altering any structure parameters. In a coherent absorber with additional internal gain media, critical coupling with arbitrarily high coherent signal extinction can be obtained by continuously tuning optical pumping density. Assuming a surface-plasmon resonance grating covered by a gain layer as a promising architecture, we numerically demonstrate gain-assisted continuous access to its critical coupling point with experimentally probable settings. In addition, the gain tuning further introduces switching of the coherent-absorber’s functionality to a conventional lossless beam splitter.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption

Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system

  • Simon Gao, Yali Jia, Gangjun Liu, and David Huang
  • received 02/23/2015; accepted 04/22/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235085
  • [full text: PDF (713) KB)]
  • Abstract: The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was optimized on a spectral optical coherence tomography system using a flow phantom. The number of times the spectrum was split and the bandwidth of each split were adjusted to maximize the flow phantom decorrelation signal-to-noise ratio. The improvement in flow detection was then demonstrated with en face retinal angiograms. The optimized algorithm increased the detectable retinal microvascular flow and decreased the variability of the quantified vessel density in OCT retinal angiograms of healthy human subjects.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
  • (170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging

Simultaneous omnidirectional zero-n and zero-phi non-Bragg gaps in metamaterial-polaritonic photonic superlattices

  • Edwin Moncada, Jorge Mejía-Salazar, and Juan Granada
  • received 02/06/2015; accepted 04/21/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 233990
  • [full text: PDF (1534) KB)]
  • Abstract: Present study shows that the inclusion of single negative polaritonic-like layers in one-dimensional metamaterial photonic superlattices may lead to new effects, such as the simultaneous existence of omnidirectional zero-n and zero-phi non-Bragg gaps for both, transversal electric (TE) and transversal magnetic (TM) polarizations, which as shown at the end, are also robust to uniaxial anisotropic effects. Such omnidirectional behavior, in the case of the zero-n gap, occurs within the same frequency range for both polarizations, which is not allowed in the case of DNG metamaterial-air superlattices, suggesting a route to design and develop omnidirectional optical filters for all polarizations. Furthermore, present results show that, when polaritonic inclusions are considered, the long wavelength approximation is not ever suitable to describe the non-Bragg gaps edges.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
  • (230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

Localized Photonic jets from flat 3D dielectric cuboids in the reflection mode

  • Miguel Beruete, Víctor Pacheco-Peña, Igor Minin, and Oleg Minin
  • received 02/23/2015; accepted 04/21/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235082
  • [full text: PDF (1086) KB)]
  • Abstract: A photonic jet (terajet at THz frequencies) commonly denotes a specific spatially localized region in the near-field at the front side of a dielectric particle with diameter comparable with wavelength illuminated with a plane wave from its backside (i.e., the jet emerges from the shadow surface of a dielectric particle). In this paper the formation of photonic is demonstrated using the recently proposed 3D dielectric cuboids working in “reflection" mode when the specific spatially localized region is localized towards the direction of incidence wavefront. The results of simulations based on Finite Integration Technique are discussed. All dimensions are given in wavelength units so that all results can be scaled to any frequency of interest including optical frequencies, simplifying the fabrication process compared with spherical dielectrics. The results here presented may be of interest for novel applications including microscopy techniques and sensors.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
  • (350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution
  • (300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

Optimizing Mode Instability in Low NA Fibers by Passive Strategies

  • Nicoletta Haarlammert, Bettina Sattler, Andreas Liem, Maximilian Strecker, Johannes Nold, Thomas Schreiber, Ramona Eberhardt, Andreas Tünnermann, Klaus Ludewigt, and Markus Jung
  • received 02/24/2015; accepted 04/21/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235223
  • [full text: PDF (395) KB)]
  • Abstract: Systematic experimental investigations towards the mode instability (MI) threshold in low NA fibers are performed. By testing several fibers with varying V-parameters drawn from the same preform a high degree of reproducibility of the experimental conditions could be achieved. This allows for systematic investigations on isolated parameters influencing the complex behavior of MI. A maximum MI threshold of 2 kW presenting a power record for narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers could be demonstrated for the tested fibers. The MI threshold was found to sensitively depend on the V-parameter for large V-parameters (> 2), but to be robust for smaller V-parameters. Furthermore, the fiber bending diameter and the seed excitation conditions were identified to sensitively influence the MI threshold.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
  • (060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
  • (140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects

First Demonstration of OFDM ECDMA for Low Cost Optical Access Networks

  • Xuhan Guo, Qi Wang, Xin Li, lei zhou, Liming Fang, Adrian Wonfor, Jinlong Wei, Johannes von Lindeiner, Richard Penty, and Ian White
  • received 03/18/2015; accepted 04/21/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 236249
  • [full text: PDF (1424) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate for the first time an analogue orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based electrical code division multiplexing access (ECDMA) passive optical network (PON) for the next-generation access applications. Advantages of the system include low cost, high capacity and enhanced spectral efficiency. A proof-of-principal 16 QAM ECDMA PON downlink experiment is used to show the transmission of an aggregate data rate of 24.8 Gb/s within a 8-user system. Transmission is achieved over 25 km of SMF with negligible dispersion and crosstalk penalties.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
  • (060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
  • (060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

Coherence experiments in single-pixel digital holography

  • Jung-Ping Liu, Chia-Hao Guo, Wei-Jen Hsiao, Ting-Chung Poon, and Peter Tsang
  • received 02/16/2015; accepted 04/20/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 234767
  • [full text: PDF (1141) KB)]
  • Abstract: In optical scanning holography (OSH), the coherence properties of the acquired holograms depend on the single-pixel size, i.e., the active area of the photo-detector. For the first time, we have demonstrated coherent, partial coherent and incoherent three-dimensional (3-D) imaging by experiment in such a single-pixel digital holographic recording system. We have found, for the incoherent-mode of OSH, in which the detector of the largest active area is applied, the 3-D location of a diffusely reflecting object can be successfully retrieved without speckle noise. For partial coherent mode employing a smaller pixel size of the detector, significant speckles and randomly distributed bright spots appear among the reconstructed images. For the coherent-mode of OSH when the size of the pixel is vanishing small, the bright spots disappear. However, the speckle remains and the signal-to-noise ratio is low.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

Generation of 8-nJ pulses from a normal dispersion thulium doped fiber laser

  • Yuxing Tang, Andy Chong, and Frank Wise
  • received 02/25/2015; accepted 04/20/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235043
  • [full text: PDF (603) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report a study of a mode-locked thulium (Tm) fiber laser with varying normal dispersion. It is difficult to reach the high-energy dissipative-soliton regime due to the anomalous dispersion of most fibers at 2 m. With large normal dispersion, the laser exhibits elements of self-similar pulse evolution, and is the first Tm fiber laser to achieve the performance benefits of normal-dispersion operation. The laser generates 7.6-nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 130 fs duration. The resulting peak power is 4 times higher than that of previous Tm fiber lasers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
  • (320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers

Computational illumination based motion deblurring with an LED array microscope

  • Chenguang Ma, Laura Waller, Lei Tian, Ziji Liu, and Qionghai Dai
  • received 01/20/2015; accepted 04/20/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 232709
  • [full text: PDF (3877) KB)]
  • Abstract: Motion blur, which results from time-averaging a signal over the camera's exposure time, is a common problem when imaging fast moving objects in microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate linear motion deblurring in an LED array microscope, based on computational illumination. By illuminating moving objects with a well-designed temporal coded sequence during each single camera exposure, the resulting motion blur is invertible and can thus be computationally removed. With programmable LEDs, the coded illumination pattern in our system has the benefit of being continuous, fast, and adaptive, which leads to high quality deblur performance and a flexible implementation. The proposed method is demonstrated experimentally for fast moving targets in a fluidic environment with simple, inexpensive optics and no moving parts.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
  • (110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging

A phase locked MHz pulse selctor for X-ray sources

  • Karsten Holldack, Alexander Föhlisch, Daniel Förster, Bernd Lindenau, Marko Leyendecker, Franz Janssen, Carsten Winkler, Jürgen Kirschner, and Frank Schumann
  • received 04/09/2015; accepted 04/19/2015; posted 04/21/2015; Doc. ID 237792
  • [full text: PDF (1600) KB)]
  • Abstract: Picosecond X-ray pulses are extracted with a phase locked X-ray pulse selector at 1.25 MHz repetition rate from the pulse trains of the accelerator driven multiuser X-ray source BESSY II preserving the peak brilliance at high pulse purity. The system consists of a specially designed in-vacuum chopper wheel rotating with 1 kHz angular frequency. The wheel is driven in an ultrahigh vacuum and is levitated on magnetic bearings being capable of withstanding high centrifugal forces. Pulses are picked by 1252 high precision slits of 70 μm width on the outer rim of the wheel corresponding to a temporal opening window of the chopper of 70 ns. We demonstrate how the electronic phase stabilization of ±2 ns together with an arrival time jitter of the individual slits of the same order of magnitude allows us to pick short single bunch x-ray pulses out of a 200 ns ion clearing gap in a multibunch pulse train as emitted from a synchrotron facility at 1.25 MHz repetition rate with a pulse purity below the shot noise detection limit. The approach is applicable to any high repetition pulsed radiation source, in particular in the X-ray spectral range up to 10 keV. The opening window in a real X-ray beamline, its stability as well as the limits of mechanical pulse picking techniques in the MHz range are discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.4880) Optical design and fabrication : Optomechanics
  • (340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
  • (340.6720) X-ray optics : Synchrotron radiation
  • (340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
  • (340.1365) X-ray optics : Bending magnet radiation
  • (340.7215) X-ray optics : Undulator radiation

Wide Operation Range In-Phase Coherently Coupled Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Array Based on Proton Implantation

  • Meng Xun, Chen Xu, Yiyang Xie, Jun Deng, Guoqing Jiang, jun wang, Kun Xu, and Hongda Chen
  • received 03/06/2015; accepted 04/19/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 235381
  • [full text: PDF (1198) KB)]
  • Abstract: In-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) hexagonal arrays based on proton implantation were produced. The near-field profiles, far-field profiles and emission spectra of the arrays under different injection currents were tested and analyzed. The arrays can maintain in-phase single mode in a considerably wide current range from 10mA (Ith) to 35mA (3.5×Ith), exhibiting excellent beam quality. The far-field divergence angular of the in-phase coupled array is 2.5 degrees. Approximately 29% of total power is localized in central lobe. Compared to square structure arrays, hexagonal arrays can maintain a more stable in-phase single mode because of stronger coupling among the elements. The maximum output power of the array is 4.9mW under pulse wave condition. Simulation of far field profile was carried out to match the in-phase operation test results. The performance enhancement of the array is accessible if the condition of heat dissipation is better. The process procedure of proton implantation is relatively simple and low cost. It can be used as an alternative to coherently coupled array implementations.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.2010) Lasers and laser optics : Diode laser arrays
  • (140.3325) Lasers and laser optics : Laser coupling
  • (140.7260) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

Hard X-ray single crystal bi-mirror

  • Irina Snigireva, Anatoly Snigirev, Michail Lyubomirskiy, Vecheslav Yunkin, and Serguei Kuznetsov
  • received 02/06/2015; accepted 04/19/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 233954
  • [full text: PDF (925) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report a novel hard X-ray interferometer consisting of two parallel channels manufactured in the single Si crystal by means of the microfabrication technology. The sidewall surfaces of the channels, analogous to mirrors, are used at very small incident angles acting equivalently to narrow micrometre size slits. The proposed interferometer design allows to arrange mirrors at different split distances. Experimental tests of the interferometer were performed at the ESRF ID06 beamline in the energy range from 12 keV to 16 keV. The interference patterns at different grazing incidence angles were recorded in the near- and far-field. Evaluation the influence of the channel surface roughness on the visibility of interference fringes was performed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics

Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton crossing waveguides using multimode interference

  • Masashi Ota, Masashi Fukuhara, Asahi Sumimura, Motoki Ito, Takuma Aihara, Yuya Ishii, and Mitsuo Fukuda
  • received 02/26/2015; accepted 04/18/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 235310
  • [full text: PDF (1268) KB)]
  • Abstract: A low-loss low-crosstalk multimode interference (MMI) crossing design for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs), which are SiO₂ stripes on Au films, is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. DLSPPWs are compatible with strong surface plasmon polariton (SPP) field confinement and maintain relatively low propagation losses. Unlike simpler crossings without MMI structures, low insertion loss of 0.65 dB and low crosstalk of −20.27 dB is confirmed numerically at a crossing angle of 10° when using tilted mirror-imaged MMI crossings. Similar insertion losses were also confirmed experimentally. The proposed structure will be beneficial for plasmonic device miniaturization and flexible patterning of optical interconnections.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
  • (250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Spectral shifts of evanescent waves generated by the scattering of polychromatic light in the near field

  • Jia Li, Liping Chang, Jingjing Chen, and wu pinghui
  • received 03/06/2015; accepted 04/18/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 235642
  • [full text: PDF (440) KB)]
  • Abstract: Evanescent waves generated by the scattering of polychromatic light using a spatially deterministic medium and their near-zone spectral properties, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed in the literature. On the basis of the Born approximation, we formulate expressions for the near-zone scattered wave by assuming that the scattering potential of the medium is of the Gaussian profile. The dependence of the spectral shift on effective sizes of the scattering potential (ESSP) is shown using numerical simulations. It is indicated that the increase of either ESSP or near-field diffraction length can induce spectral shifts in scattered evanescent waves.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering

Tunable control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in a compact graphene-based waveguide

  • Wei Li, Lin Wang, and Xunya Jiang
  • received 04/16/2015; accepted 04/17/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 238034
  • [full text: PDF (520) KB)]
  • Abstract: An easily-integrated compact graphene-based waveguide structure is proposed to achieve an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT) effect at terahertz frequencies. The structure is composed of a graphene waveguide and two identical-shape graphene ribbons paralleled located on the same side of the waveguide at different distances, in which the closer and the farther ribbons behave as the bright and the dark resonators respectively. The EIT-like effect is caused by the destructive interference of the two resonators. By shifting the Fermi energy levels of ribbons, the transparency window can be dynamically tuned. The structure may offer another way for tunable integrated optical devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

An analog photonic link based on the Aulter-Townes splitting induced dual-band filter for OCS and the SOI signal processor

  • Hongchen Yu, Minghua Chen, Hongwei Chen, Sigang Yang, Shizhong Xie, and Pengxiao Li
  • received 01/16/2015; accepted 04/17/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 232555
  • [full text: PDF (1245) KB)]
  • Abstract: Analog photonic link (APL) is attractive for its potential high performance of larger dynamic range, tunability and EMI. An APL based on the Aulter-Townes splitting (ATS)-effect induced dual-band filter for optical carrier suppression (OCS) and the SOI signal processor has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The bandwidths of the two passbands are approximate 780 MHz and the interval could be tuned from 8 GHz to more than 80 GHz in simulation. The extinction ratio is larger than 20 dB which can provide a 20 dB suppression of the optical carrier and higher order sidebands to obtain clean optical carrier and local oscillator (LO) for modulation and down-conversion. The down-conversion APL based on the proposed dual-band OCS filter at X-band has been presented and the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the link is measured to as high as 102.2 dB-Hz2/3.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.1170) Fourier optics and signal processing : Analog optical signal processing
  • (230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
  • (060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer based on a randomly encoded hybrid grating

  • Yongying Yang, Tong Ling, Dong Liu, Xiumei Yue, Yibing Shen, and Jian Bai
  • received 03/16/2015; accepted 04/17/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 236118
  • [full text: PDF (767) KB)]
  • Abstract: A compact quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer (QWLSI) with strong adaptability and high precision is proposed based on a novel randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG). By performing the inverse Fourier transform of the desired ±1 Fraunhofer diffraction orders, the amplitude and phase distributions of the ideally calculated quadriwave grating can be obtained. Then a phase chessboard is introduced to generate the same phase distribution, while the amplitude distribution can be achieved using randomly encoding method by quantizing the radiant flux on the ideal quadriwave grating. As the Faunhofer diffraction of the REHG only contains the ±1 orders, no order selection mask is ever needed for the REHG-LSI. The simulations and the experiments show that the REHG-LSI exhibits strong adaptability, nice repeatability and high precision.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement

Articles 1 to 20 of 80 Next Page >>





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