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December


Two-crystal, synchronously-pumped, femtosecond optical parametric oscillator

  • Venkata Ramaiah Badarla, Adolfo Esteban Martín, and Majid Ebrahim-Zadeh
  • received 11/10/2014; accepted 12/15/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 226546
  • [full text: PDF (1309) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on two nonlinear crystals synchronously pumped by a single ultrafast laser for efficient intracavity signal amplification and output power enhancement. By deploying two identical MgO:PPLN crystals in a single standing-wave cavity, and two pump pulse trains of similar average power from the same Kerr-lens-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, a minimum enhancement of 56% in the extracted signal power is achieved, with un-optimized output coupling, when temporal synchronization between the two intracavity signal pulse trains is established, resulting in a corresponding enhancement of 49% in pump depletion. Using intracavty dispersion control, near-transform-limited signal pulses with clean spectrum are obtained.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Direct phase-locking of a 8.6μm quantum cascade laser to a mid-IR optical frequency comb: application to precision spectroscopy of N2O

  • Alessio Gambetta, Marco Cassinerio, Nicola Coluccelli, Eugenio Fasci, Antonio Castrillo, Livio Gianfrani, Davide Gatti, Marco Marangoni, Paolo Laporta, and Gianluca Galzerano
  • received 10/13/2014; accepted 12/13/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 224799
  • [full text: PDF (595) KB)]
  • Abstract: We developed a high-precision spectroscopic system at 8.6 μm based on direct heterodyne detection and phase-locking of a room-temperature quantum-cascade-laser against an harmonic, 250~MHz mid-IR frequency comb obtained by difference-frequency-generation. The good signal-to-noise ratio of the detected beat-note (~30 dB) together with the achieved closed-loop locking bandwidth of ~500 kHz allows for a residual integrated phase noise of ~0.78 rad (1 Hz - 5 MHz) , for an ultimate resolution of ~21~kHz, limited by the measured linewidth of the mid-IR comb. The system was used to perform absolute measurement of line-center frequencies for the rotational components of the ν2 vibrational band of N2O, with a relative precision of 3E-10

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
  • (140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Spectro-temporal dynamics of a picosecond OPO based on chirped quasi-phase-matching

  • Antoine Godard, Delphine Descloux, Cédric Laporte, Jean-Baptiste Dherbecourt, Jean-Michel Melkonian, Myriam Raybaut, Cyril Drag, Delphine Descloux, Cédric Laporte, Jean-Baptiste Dherbecourt, Jean-Michel Melkonian, Myriam Raybaut, and Cyril Drag
  • received 11/07/2014; accepted 12/13/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 225459
  • [full text: PDF (2334) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the first experimental investigation of the spectral dynamics of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) by use of dispersive Fourier transformation. For standard pumping rates, we observe a reproducible steady-state pulse-to-pulse spectrum. However, at high pumping levels, the OPO delivers pulse trains with nontrivial oscillatory spectral patterns. So as to benefit from a tailored broadband gain spectrum, the investigated OPO contains a chirped quasi-phase matching (QPM) nonlinear crystal. We explore the specific impacts of using such a remarkable parametric amplification medium where nonlinearly coupled frequencies vary with position. Depending on the QPM chirp rate sign, a red- or blue-shift of the emitted wavelength occurs when the OPO is switched on, leading to different spectral steady-states. These singular spectro-temporal dynamics are evidenced and explained for the first time.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
  • (190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Ultrafast laser-excited vibration and elastic modulus of individual gold nanorods

  • Yong Gan, Zhen Chen, and Chengquan Wang
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 12/12/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 227205
  • [full text: PDF (601) KB)]
  • Abstract: Ultrafast laser irradiation of single gold nanorods with various sizes is simulated for investigating the vibrations of the nanorods, using a hybrid method that couples the molecular dynamics (MD) with the two-temperature model. The extensional frequencies of single gold nanorods are extracted from the atomic trajectories obtained by the MD simulations. In combination with continuum elasticity,.the elastic moduli of single gold nanorods are determined with the predicted extensional frequencies of nanorods. It is shown that with the increasing nanorod width the modulus of single gold nanorods increases and approaches that of bulk gold. The notable softening of elastic modulus is clearly shown for the smaller nanorods with the widths of ~8 and ~12 nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

Cavity Spatial Mode Locking and High Controllability of Radial Output Coupling for Circular/Square Plasmonic Nano-Resonator Lasers

  • Xi Chen, Yingyan Huang, and Seng-Tiong Ho
  • received 08/21/2014; accepted 12/11/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 221196
  • [full text: PDF (835) KB)]
  • Abstract: We proposed and investigated a novel output coupling scheme for a circular and a square plasmonic nano-ring laser based on a T-shape radial coupler that is easier to realize than a tangential coupler. The amount of coupling efficiency is shown to be highly controllable from a few percent to tens of percent due to the fact that the standing-wave lasing mode pattern will rotate to give the minimal cavity loss at the T coupler’s location, making the amount of output coupling surprisingly low and hence controllable. For a non-circular cavity, other symmetry breaking and geometry-induced scattering could result in separate mode-pattern locking. These give a few main ways to control and optimize the coupling efficiency: (a) via widening/narrowing or rotating the T-coupler’s waveguide; (b) for the case of a non-circular cavity, via shifting the location of the T coupler. We observed increased uni-directional lasing induced by rotating the waveguide or shifting the waveguide (for non-circular case) We simulated the coupling using Maxwell’s equations based on multi-level multi-electron (MLME) FDTD method to realistically model the lasing and output coupling behaviors of such plasmonic semiconductor lasers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3560) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ring
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Deep-subwavelength nanohole arrays embedded in nanoripples fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation

  • khuat vanthanh, Jinhai Si, Tao Chen, and Xun Hou
  • received 11/13/2014; accepted 12/11/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 226844
  • [full text: PDF (6381) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the formation of deep-subwavelength nanohole arrays embedded in silicon carbide nanoripples fabricated by an 800-nm femtosecond laser in an underwater environment. The period of the nanoripples is about 450 nm. The ripples are perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident laser. The diameter of the holes is about 30 nm, and the period of the hole array is about 60 nm. Nanoripple formation is attributed to interference of the incident laser and a laser-induced plasma wave. Nanohole chain formation is attributed to the formation of channel plasmon polaritons in the nanogrooves associated with the nanoripples.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication

Ultra-weak intrinsic FP cavity array for distributed sensing

  • Tao Wei, Zhen Chen, Lei Yuan, and Gerald Hefferman
  • received 11/06/2014; accepted 12/10/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 226264
  • [full text: PDF (615) KB)]
  • Abstract: This letter reports an ultra-weak intrinsic Fabry–Pérot interferometer (IFPI) array fabricated by femtosecond (fs) laser for distributed sensing applications. Ultra-low reflectors (<−60 dB) were obtained. IFPIs with different physical lengths showed identical temperature sensitivity (−1.5 GHz/˚C). A distributed temperature sensing test was conducted. No crosstalk between IFPI elements in the array was observed, implying the device’s utility as a distributed sensing system. The possibility of using smaller bandwidths for sensor interrogation was experimentally proven. A small-scale temperature distribution test was conducted on a continuously cascaded ultra-weak IFPI array, demonstrating its high spatial resolution. The temperature detection limit of this system was measured to be less than 0.0667˚C.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.2230) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fabry-Perot

PureB Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes for Low-Energy Electron Detection Down to 200 eV

  • Lin Qi, Seyno Sluyterman, Kees Kooijman, K.R.C. Mok, and Lis Nanver
  • received 11/10/2014; accepted 12/10/2014; posted 12/16/2014; Doc. ID 226572
  • [full text: PDF (2644) KB)]
  • Abstract: Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been fabricated on Si using PureB (Pure Boron) chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) to create both a nanometer-thin anode junction and a robust front-entrance window. The device shows high sensitivity to low radiation levels of electrons with energies down to 200 eV when measurements are performed at room temperature where the dark count rate can be as low as 10 Hz. An implicit guard ring, using an n-enhancement implantation in the central region of the diode, is applied and this gives a very uniform sensitivity across the whole front-entrance window

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
  • (040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
  • (040.6040) Detectors : Silicon
  • (180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
  • (040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

Bi2Se3 Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide laser topological insulator saturable absorber

  • Yang Tan, Feng Chen, Chujun Zhao, Han Zhang, Shavkat Akhmadaliev, and Shengqiang Zhou
  • received 09/22/2014; accepted 12/09/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 223575
  • [full text: PDF (1529) KB)]
  • Abstract: Using a topological insulator Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber, highly stable Q-switched laser pulses were realized in a Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide fabricated by carbon ion irradiation. The laser operation was at wavelength of 1064 nm, with repetition rate ranging from 2.7 MHz to 4.7 MHz. The minimum pulsed duration was 46 ns. The maximum output power was up to 168.6 mW corresponding to the pulse energy of 31.3 nJ. This work opens up a practical way for implementation of topological insulator modulated pulsed laser devices in dielectric waveguide platforms.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled

Design of weak scattering media for controllable light scattering

  • Olga Korotkova
  • received 10/08/2014; accepted 12/09/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 224296
  • [full text: PDF (473) KB)]
  • Abstract: We explore the possibility of designing correlation functions of a particle's scattering potential for producing desired scattered intensity distributions, within the validity of the first Born and far-field approximations. It is shown that for scatterers with the same average distributions of the scattering potential (refractive index) but different degrees of potential's correlation, the scattered fields with desired average intensity distributions can be produced. Two examples of such potentials are included: those for flat circular and ring-like scattered intensities if considered to be a function of the scattering (azymuthal) angle. In both cases the height, width and edge sharpness can be adjusted at will. Production of the novel media is envisioned via the 3D printing or sequences of liquid crystal light modulators.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles

Extraction of group index of lossy photonic crystal waveguides

  • Kapil Debnath, Liam O'Faolain, and Amrita Debnath
  • received 10/21/2014; accepted 12/09/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 225091
  • [full text: PDF (757) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a numerical approach to extract group index in photonic crystal waveguides using two and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain methods and make a quantitative study of the effects of loss on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides. Photonic crystal waveguides are simulated with varying material loss and varying photonic crystal waveguide length. Finally we validate our method by comparing three-dimensional simulation results with experimental results.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
  • (130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
  • (050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

Laterally-coupled dual-grating distributed feedback lasers for generating mode-beat Terahertz signals

  • Lianping Hou, Iain Eddie, Hongliang Zhu, John Marsh, and Mohsin Haji
  • received 10/21/2014; accepted 12/08/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 225394
  • [full text: PDF (1647) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a laterally-coupled dual wavelength 1.56/1.57 μm AlGaInAs/InP DFB laser, which, by introducing of two different grating periods on each sidewall, emits two longitudinal modes simultaneously within the same cavity at a frequency separation of 0.82 THz. The beating signal is stabilized by nonlinear four-wave mixing in an electroabsorption modulator (EAM), located within a monolithically integrated resonant cavity. A stable 0.82 THz beating signal was observed over a wide range of bias parameters in terms of drive currents and bias to the DFB and EAM sections.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (290.3700) Scattering : Linewidth
  • (300.2570) Spectroscopy : Four-wave mixing

A low power threshold photonic saturable absorber in nonlinear chalcogenide glass

  • Razvan Stoian, Stefano Minardi, Cheng Guanghua, and ciro d'amico
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 12/08/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 227134
  • [full text: PDF (444) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate controllable nonlinear modulation of optical guiding in ultrafast laser written evanescently coupled waveguide arrays in bulk Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide chalcogenide glass. The intensity dependent response is validated by simulating light propagation in waveguide arrays with instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity using a discrete-continuous spatiotemporal Unidirectional Maxwell Equation model. The intensity driven modulation of transmission in multicore structures acts as a potential saturable absorber at kW threshold levels.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
  • (230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
  • (320.7120) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast phenomena
  • (080.1238) Geometric optics : Array waveguide devices

A set-up for broadband Fourier-Transform multidimensional electronic spectroscopy

  • Majed Chergui, André Haddad, Adrien Chauvet, José Ojeda Andara, Christopher Arrell, Frank van Mourik, and Gerald Aubock
  • received 09/29/2014; accepted 12/05/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 223961
  • [full text: PDF (3617) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a compact passively phase stabilized ultra-broadband 2D Fourier transform setup using conventional optics. A gas (argon) filled hollow core fiber pumped by an amplified Ti:Al2O3 laser is used as a light source providing spectral range spanning from 420 nm to 900 nm. Sub-10 fs pulses were obtained using a deformable mirror based pulse shaper. We probe the nonlinear response of Rhodamine 101 using 90 nm bandwidth and resolve vibrational coherences of 150 fs period in the ground state.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
  • (300.6530) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultrafast
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Patterning linear and nonlinear optical properties of photosensitive glasses by femtosecond structured light

  • Yannick Petit, Konstantin Mishchik, Etienne Brasselet, Arnaud Royon, Thierry Cardinal, and Lionel Canioni
  • received 10/09/2014; accepted 12/05/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 224524
  • [full text: PDF (871) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on structured light induced femtosecond direct laser writing (DLW) under tight focusing in a non commercial silver-containing zinc phosphate glass, which leads to original patterns of fluorescent silver clusters. These fluorescence topologies show unique features of frustrated diffusion of charged species, giving rise to distorted silver cluster spatial distributions. Fluorescence and second harmonic generation correlative microscopy demonstrates the realization of structured light induced direct laser poling, resulting from a laser-induced permanent and stable electric field buried inside the modified glass. Thus, structured light induced DLW remarkably enables linear but also nonlinear patterning. This work highlights the interest of optical phase engineering to obtain non trivial beam profiles and subsequent photo-induced patterns that cannot be reached under Gaussian beam irradiation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
  • (110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics

High-energy, sub-20 fs, nearly transform-limited pulse at 1065~nm enabled by a flat field ultrafast pulse shaper

  • Scott Domingue and Randy Bartels
  • received 11/12/2014; accepted 12/05/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 226746
  • [full text: PDF (559) KB)]
  • Abstract: Using a low-nonlinearity fiber and pulses from a nonlinear fiber amplifier seeded by a modelocked Yb-doped fiber oscillator, we generate 19 fs pulses centered at 1065 nm with 11.5 nJ of pulse energy (700 mW average power). The short (<15 cm) 10 micron core, polarization maintaining fiber minimizes deleterious nonlinear effects and eliminates fiber damage, while still producing pulse bandwidths well beyond the Yb gain bandwidth limit. A flat field pulse shaper, utilizing a Pl\"{o}ssl lens, compresses the pulse to within 92% of the transform-limited peak power. The total power transmission efficiency is as high as 67%, including fiber coupling losses and pulse shaper transmission, due to the novel pulse shaper design allowing the incorporation of a high efficiency transmission grating.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.5520) Ultrafast optics : Pulse compression
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping
  • (320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

Multifrequency focusing and wide angular scanning of Terajets

  • Miguel Beruete, Víctor Pacheco-Peña, Igor Minin, and Oleg Minin
  • received 11/05/2014; accepted 12/05/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 226241
  • [full text: PDF (1398) KB)]
  • Abstract: In the past, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce terajets with high resolution at its focus using 3D dielectric cuboids under plane wave illumination. Here, a systematic study of the harmonic and angular response of terajets using cuboids is performed. Mutifrequency focusing is demonstrated at the fundamental frequency and two higher-frequency harmonics showing an intensity enhancement of 10, 18 and 14 for each case. This capability to use 3D dielectric cuboids to produce Terajets at the fundamental frequency and first harmonic is experimentally evaluated at sub-THz frequencies, with good agreement with numerical results. Moreover, a robust angular response is demonstrated numerically and experimentally showing that the intensity at the focal position is maintained in a wide angular range (from 0 to 45 deg); demonstrating the capability to work as a wide scanning terajet focusing lens. The results here presented may be scaled at different frequency bands such as optical frequencies and may be used in microscopy techniques and sensors

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
  • (350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution
  • (300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

Hybrid plasmon photonic crystal resonance grating for integrated optical spectrometer sensor

  • Hong GUO and Junpeng Guo
  • received 09/04/2014; accepted 12/05/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 222490
  • [full text: PDF (806) KB)]
  • Abstract: With nanofabricated hybrid metal-dielectric optical resonance photonic crystal gratings, a hybrid plasmon optical resonance spectrometer sensor was demonstrated. The new spectrometer sensor technique measures plasmon optical resonance from the first order diffraction rather than the traditional way of measuring optical resonance from transmission. The resonance spectra measured with the new spectrometer are compared with the spectra measured by using a commercial optical spectrometer. It is shown that new optical resonance spectroscopic technique can be used to measure plasmon optical resonance that cannot be measured by using a regular optical spectrometer.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
  • (230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Compact multimode fiber beam-shaping system based on GPU accelerated digital holography

  • Martin Ploschner and Tomas Cizmar
  • received 10/27/2014; accepted 12/04/2014; posted 12/11/2014; Doc. ID 225693
  • [full text: PDF (471) KB)]
  • Abstract: Real-time, on-demand, beam shaping at the end of the multimode fiber has recently been made possible by exploiting the computational power of rapidly evolving graphics processing unit (GPU) technology [Ploschner, M. et al., Opt. Express 22(3), 2933, 2014]. However, the current state-of-the-art system requires the presence of an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) to produce images at the end of the fiber without interference effects between neighbouring output points. Here, we present a system free from the AOD complexity where we achieve the removal of the undesired interference effects computationally using GPU implemented Gerchberg- Saxton and Yang-Gu algorithms. The GPU implementation is two orders of magnitude faster than the CPU implementation which allows video-rate image control at the distal end of the fiber virtually free of interference effects.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2350) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics imaging
  • (090.1000) Holography : Aberration compensation
  • (090.1760) Holography : Computer holography

Two-dimensional simulation of optical wave propagation through atmospheric turbulence

  • Milo Hyde, Jason Schmidt, and Santasri Basu
  • received 10/08/2014; accepted 12/04/2014; posted 12/08/2014; Doc. ID 224545
  • [full text: PDF (364) KB)]
  • Abstract: A methodology for the two-dimensional simulation of optical wave propagation through atmospheric turbulence is presented. The derivations of common statistical field moments in two dimensions, required for performing and validating simulations, are presented and compared with their traditional three-dimensional counterparts. A wave optics simulation is performed to validate the two-dimensional moments and to demonstrate the utility of performing two-dimensional wave optics simulations. Discussions of the benefits and limitations of two-dimensional atmospheric turbulence simulations are provided throughout.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
  • (010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
  • (010.7060) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Turbulence
  • (030.7060) Coherence and statistical optics : Turbulence
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Articles 1 to 20 of 71 Next Page >>





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