OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — May. 1, 2011
  • pp: 78–84

Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Grace D. Metcalfe, Eric D. Readinger, Ryan Enck, Hongen Shen, Michael Wraback, Nathaniel T. Woodward, Jon Poplawsky, and Volkmar Dierolf  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 78-84 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1651 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present luminescence spectroscopy measurements of in situ Nd doped AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A Nd concentration as high as 0.08 at. % is incorporated into the host material. The Nd incorporation efficiency within the AlN matrix is found to be highly sensitive to the Al flux but independent of the substrate temperature (between 800 °C to 950 °C). Photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and combined excitation-emission spectroscopy (CEES) spectra are used to identify the Stark sublevels of the following manifolds: 4I9/2, 4I11/2, 4I13/2, 4F3/2, 4F5/2, 2H9/2, 4F7/2, 4S3/2, 4G5/2, and 4G7/2. A main Nd incorporation site and two minority sites are identified using CEES measurements.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials

ToC Category:
Fluorescent and Luminescent Materials

Original Manuscript: February 9, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 10, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 13, 2011
Published: April 22, 2011

Grace D. Metcalfe, Eric D. Readinger, Ryan Enck, Hongen Shen, Michael Wraback, Nathaniel T. Woodward, Jon Poplawsky, and Volkmar Dierolf, "Near-infrared photoluminescence properties of neodymium in in situ doped AlN grown using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 78-84 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited