OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 8 — Dec. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1527–1535

Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited]

Jin Yan and Shin-Tson Wu  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 8, pp. 1527-1535 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001527


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (969 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Blue phase liquid crystals exhibit several attractive features, such as self-assembled three-dimensional cubic structures, optically-isotropic in the voltage-off state, no need for alignment layers, and submillisecond response time. This tutorial gives step-by-step introduction on basic blue-phase materials and properties, monomers and polymerization processes, and key device performance criteria for display and photonics applications.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers

ToC Category:
Liquid Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: September 27, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 6, 2011
Published: November 8, 2011

Virtual Issues
Liquid Crystal Materials for Photonic Applications (2011) Optical Materials Express
(2011) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Citation
Jin Yan and Shin-Tson Wu, "Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited]," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1527-1535 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-8-1527


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. F. Reinitzer, “Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholestherins,” Monatsh. Chem. 9(1), 421–441 (1888). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Saupe, “On molecular structure and physical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 59–74 (1969). [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Brazovskii and S. G. Dmitriev, “Phase transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69, 979–989 (1975).
  4. R. M. Hornreich and S. Shtrikman, Liquid Crystals of One- and Two- Dimensional Order (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
  5. S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Dubois-Violette and B. Pansu, “Frustration and related topology of blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 165, 151–182 (1988).
  7. P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, New York, 2001), Chap. 7.
  8. D. L. Johnson, J. H. Flack, and P. P. Crooker, “Structure and properties of the cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(8), 641–644 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Miller and H. F. Gleeson, “Order parameter measurements from the Kossel diagrams of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52(5), 5011–5016 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kikuchi, Liquid Crystalline Blue Phases (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 99–117.
  15. G. Heppke, H.-S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2, 59–65 (1985).
  16. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(19), 2991–2998 (1989). [CrossRef]
  18. H. Stegemeyer and F. Porsch, “Electric field effect on phase transitions in liquid-crystalline blue-phase systems,” Phys. Rev. A 30(6), 3369–3371 (1984). [CrossRef]
  19. H.-S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 202(1), 51–83 (1991). [CrossRef]
  20. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Seshadri and H. J. Haupt, “Novel ferrocene-based chiral Schiff's base derivative with a twist-grain boundary phase (TGBA) and a blue phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 7(7), 735–736 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Haseba and T. Kuninobu, “Optically isotropic liquid crystal medium and optical device,” U.S. patent 7,722,783 B2 (2010).
  27. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3-4), 197–206 (1985). [CrossRef]
  29. H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989). [CrossRef]
  30. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011). [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Haseba and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic chiral liquid crystals induced by polymer network and their electro-optical behavior,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 470(1), 1–9 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011). [CrossRef]
  35. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010). [CrossRef]
  37. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  38. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).
  39. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006). [CrossRef]
  41. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010). [CrossRef]
  43. Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. C. H. Lin, Y. Y. Wang, and C. W. Hsieh, “Polarization-independent and high-diffraction-efficiency Fresnel lenses based on blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 502–504 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited