OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1462–1469

High active carrier concentration in n-type, thin film Ge using delta-doping

Rodolfo E. Camacho-Aguilera, Yan Cai, Jonathan T. Bessette, Lionel C. Kimerling, and Jurgen Michel  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 11, pp. 1462-1469 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1298 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate CVD in situ doping of Ge by utilizing phosphorus delta-doping for the creation of a high dopant diffusion source. Multiple monolayer delta doping creates source phosphorous concentrations above 1 × 1020cm−3, and uniform activated dopant concentrations above 4 × 1019cm−3 in a 600-800nm thick Ge layer after in-diffusion. By controlling dopant out-diffusion, near-complete incorporation of phosphorus diffusion source is shown.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(160.3130) Materials : Integrated optics materials
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: September 10, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 25, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 25, 2012
Published: September 28, 2012

Rodolfo E. Camacho-Aguilera, Yan Cai, Jonathan T. Bessette, Lionel C. Kimerling, and Jurgen Michel, "High active carrier concentration in n-type, thin film Ge using delta-doping," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1462-1469 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: a review of recent literature,” Silicon2(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Kasper, M. Oehme, T. Aguirov, J. Werner, M. Kittler, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band gap emission from Ge p-i-n heterojunction photodiodes,” in Proceedings of Group IV Photonics 2010 (2010).
  6. P. Velha, K. Gallacher, D. C. Dumas, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Direct band-gap electroluminescence from strained n-doped germanium diode,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CW1L.7.
  7. S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and T. L. Koch, “Band-engineered Ge as gain medium for Si-based laser,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA) Topical Meeting, (Boston, MA, USA, 2008).
  12. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Sun, “Ge-on-Si light-emitting materials and devices for silicon photonics,” Ph.D. dissertation (MIT, 2009).
  14. S. Brotzmann and H. Bracht, “Intrinsic and extrinsic diffusion of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony in germanium,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033508 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Optical bleaching of thin film Ge on Si,” ECS Trans.16, 881–889 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Satta, E. Simoen, R. Duffy, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, A. Benedetti, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Diffusion, activation, and regrowth behavior of high dose P implants in Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 162118 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. S. J. Bass, “Silicon and germanium doping of epitaxial gallium arsenide grown by the trimethylgallium-arsine method,” J. Cryst. Growth47(5-6), 613–618 (1979). [CrossRef]
  18. C. E. C. Wood, G. Metze, J. Berry, and L. F. Eastman, “Complex free-carrier profile synthesis by ‘atomic-plane’ doping of MBE GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(1), 383–387 (1980). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Gossmann, A. M. Vredenberg, C. S. Rafferty, H. S. Luftman, F. C. Unterwald, D. C. Jacobson, T. Boone, and J. M. Poate, “Diffusion of dopants in B- and Sb-delta-doped Si films grown by solid-phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.74(5), 3150–3155 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. C. T. Lee, and M. Y. Simmons, “Ultradense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 162106 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, and M. Y. Simmons, “Dual-temperature encapsulation of phosphorus in germanium delta layers toward ultra-shallow junctions,” J. Cryst. Growth316(1), 81–84 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Cai, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High phosphorus doped germanium: dopant diffusion and modeling,” J. Appl. Phys.112(3), 034509 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(19), 2909–2911 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. S.-M. Jang, K. Liao, and R. Reif, “Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon-germanium from silane and germane. II. In situ boron, arsenic, and phosphorus doping,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(10), 3520–3527 (1995). [CrossRef]
  25. R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, J. Bessette, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” submitted (2012).
  26. R. Olesinski, N. Kanani, and G. Abbaschian, “The Ge−P (germanium-phosphorus) system,” J. Phase Equilibria6, 262–266 (1985).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited